History Addict's Sunday School Lessons Series

Ezekiel Part 5: Judgment Against the Nations (Chapters 25-32)

(Please note: In addition to my original lesson plans here are some of the notes, annotations and references I used to create the lesson from a variety of sources, all listed at the bottom of the page)


(New American Standard, 1995):


Ezek. 25:1 And the word of the LORD came to me saying,

Ezek. 25:2 "Son of man, set your face toward the sons of Ammon and prophesy against them,

Ezek. 25:3 and say to the sons of Ammon, 'Hear the word of the Lord GOD! Thus says the Lord GOD, "Because you said, 'Aha!' against My sanctuary when it was profaned, and against the land of Israel when it was made desolate, and against the house of Judah when they went into exile,

Ezek. 25:4 therefore, behold, I am going to give you to the sons of the east for a possession, and they will set their encampments among you and make their dwellings among you; they will eat your fruit and drink your milk.

Ezek. 25:5 "I will make Rabbah a pasture for camels and the sons of Ammon a resting place for flocks. Thus you will know that I am the LORD."

Ezek. 25:6 'For thus says the Lord GOD, "Because you have clapped your hands and stamped your feet and rejoiced with all the scorn of your soul against the land of Israel,

Ezek. 25:7 therefore, behold, I have stretched out My hand against you and I will give you for spoil to the nations. And I will cut you off from the peoples and make you perish from the lands; I will destroy you. Thus you will know that I am the LORD."

Ezek. 25:8 'Thus says the Lord GOD, "Because Moab and Seir say, 'Behold, the house of Judah is like all the nations,'

Ezek. 25:9 therefore, behold, I am going to deprive the flank of Moab of its cities, of its cities which are on its frontiers, the glory of the land, Beth-jeshimoth, Baal-meon and Kiriathaim,

Ezek. 25:10 and I will give it for a possession along with the sons of Ammon to the sons of the east, so that the sons of Ammon will not be remembered among the nations.

Ezek. 25:11 "Thus I will execute judgments on Moab, and they will know that I am the LORD."

Ezek. 25:12 'Thus says the Lord GOD, "Because Edom has acted against the house of Judah by taking vengeance, and has incurred grievous guilt, and avenged themselves upon them,"

Ezek. 25:13 therefore thus says the Lord GOD, "I will also stretch out My hand against Edom and cut off man and beast from it. And I will lay it waste; from Teman even to Dedan they will fall by the sword.

Ezek. 25:14 "I will lay My vengeance on Edom by the hand of My people Israel. Therefore, they will act in Edom according to My anger and according to My wrath; thus they will know My vengeance," declares the Lord GOD.

Ezek. 25:15 'Thus says the Lord GOD, "Because the Philistines have acted in revenge and have taken vengeance with scorn of soul to destroy with everlasting enmity,"

Ezek. 25:16 therefore thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I will stretch out My hand against the Philistines, even cut off the Cherethites and destroy the remnant of the seacoast.

Ezek. 25:17 "I will execute great vengeance on them with wrathful rebukes; and they will know that I am the LORD when I lay My vengeance on them."'"

Ezek. 26:1 Now in the eleventh year, on the first of the month, the word of the LORD came to me saying,

Ezek. 26:2 "Son of man, because Tyre has said concerning Jerusalem, 'Aha, the gateway of the peoples is broken; it has opened to me. I shall be filled, now that she is laid waste,'

Ezek. 26:3 therefore thus says the Lord GOD, 'Behold, I am against you, O Tyre, and I will bring up many nations against you, as the sea brings up its waves.

Ezek. 26:4 'They will destroy the walls of Tyre and break down her towers; and I will scrape her debris from her and make her a bare rock.

Ezek. 26:5 'She will be a place for the spreading of nets in the midst of the sea, for I have spoken,' declares the Lord GOD, 'and she will become spoil for the nations.

Ezek. 26:6 'Also her daughters who are on the mainland will be slain by the sword, and they will know that I am the LORD.'"

Ezek. 26:7 For thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I will bring upon Tyre from the north Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, king of kings, with horses, chariots, cavalry and a great army.

Ezek. 26:8 "He will slay your daughters on the mainland with the sword; and he will make siege walls against you, cast up a ramp against you and raise up a large shield against you.

Ezek. 26:9 "The blow of his battering rams he will direct against your walls, and with his axes he will break down your towers.

Ezek. 26:10 "Because of the multitude of his horses, the dust raised by them will cover you; your walls will shake at the noise of cavalry and wagons and chariots when he enters your gates as men enter a city that is breached.

Ezek. 26:11 "With the hoofs of his horses he will trample all your streets. He will slay your people with the sword; and your strong pillars will come down to the ground.

Ezek. 26:12 "Also they will make a spoil of your riches and a prey of your merchandise, break down your walls and destroy your pleasant houses, and throw your stones and your timbers and your debris into the water.

Ezek. 26:13 "So I will silence the sound of your songs, and the sound of your harps will be heard no more.

Ezek. 26:14 "I will make you a bare rock; you will be a place for the spreading of nets. You will be built no more, for I the LORD have spoken," declares the Lord GOD.

Ezek. 26:15 Thus says the Lord GOD to Tyre, "Shall not the coastlands shake at the sound of your fall when the wounded groan, when the slaughter occurs in your midst?

Ezek. 26:16 "Then all the princes of the sea will go down from their thrones, remove their robes and strip off their embroidered garments. They will clothe themselves with trembling; they will sit on the ground, tremble every moment and be appalled at you.

Ezek. 26:17 "They will take up a lamentation over you and say to you,

         'How you have perished, O inhabited one,

         From the seas, O renowned city,

         Which was mighty on the sea,

         She and her inhabitants,

         Who imposed her terror

         On all her inhabitants!

Ezek. 26:18         'Now the coastlands will tremble

         On the day of your fall;

         Yes, the coastlands which are by the sea

         Will be terrified at your passing.'"

Ezek. 26:19 For thus says the Lord GOD, "When I make you a desolate city, like the cities which are not inhabited, when I bring up the deep over you and the great waters cover you,

Ezek. 26:20 then I will bring you down with those who go down to the pit, to the people of old, and I will make you dwell in the lower parts of the earth, like the ancient waste places, with those who go down to the pit, so that you will not be inhabited; but I will set glory in the land of the living.

Ezek. 26:21 "I will bring terrors on you and you will be no more; though you will be sought, you will never be found again," declares the Lord GOD.

Ezek. 27:1 Moreover, the word of the LORD came to me saying,

Ezek. 27:2 "And you, son of man, take up a lamentation over Tyre;

Ezek. 27:3 and say to Tyre, who dwells at the entrance to the sea, merchant of the peoples to many coastlands, 'Thus says the Lord GOD,

         "O Tyre, you have said, 'I am perfect in beauty.'

Ezek. 27:4 "Your borders are in the heart of the seas;

         Your builders have perfected your beauty.

Ezek. 27:5 "They have made all your planks of fir trees from Senir;

         They have taken a cedar from Lebanon to make a mast for you.

Ezek. 27:6 "Of oaks from Bashan they have made your oars;

         With ivory they have inlaid your deck of boxwood from the coastlands of Cyprus.

Ezek. 27:7 "Your sail was of fine embroidered linen from Egypt

         So that it became your distinguishing mark;

         Your awning was blue and purple from the coastlands of Elishah.

Ezek. 27:8 "The inhabitants of Sidon and Arvad were your rowers;

         Your wise men, O Tyre, were aboard; they were your pilots.

Ezek. 27:9 "The elders of Gebal and her wise men were with you repairing your seams;

         All the ships of the sea and their sailors were with you in order to deal in your merchandise.

Ezek. 27:10 "Persia and Lud and Put were in your army, your men of war. They hung shield and helmet in you; they set forth your splendor.

Ezek. 27:11 "The sons of Arvad and your army were on your walls, all around, and the Gammadim were in your towers. They hung their shields on your walls all around; they perfected your beauty.

Ezek. 27:12 "Tarshish was your customer because of the abundance of all kinds of wealth; with silver, iron, tin and lead they paid for your wares.

Ezek. 27:13 "Javan, Tubal and Meshech, they were your traders; with the lives of men and vessels of bronze they paid for your merchandise.

Ezek. 27:14 "Those from Beth-togarmah gave horses and war horses and mules for your wares.

Ezek. 27:15 "The sons of Dedan were your traders. Many coastlands were your market; ivory tusks and ebony they brought as your payment.

Ezek. 27:16 "Aram was your customer because of the abundance of your goods; they paid for your wares with emeralds, purple, embroidered work, fine linen, coral and rubies.

Ezek. 27:17 "Judah and the land of Israel, they were your traders; with the wheat of Minnith, cakes, honey, oil and balm they paid for your merchandise.

Ezek. 27:18 "Damascus was your customer because of the abundance of your goods, because of the abundance of all kinds of wealth, because of the wine of Helbon and white wool.

Ezek. 27:19 "Vedan and Javan paid for your wares from Uzal; wrought iron, cassia and sweet cane were among your merchandise.

Ezek. 27:20 "Dedan traded with you in saddlecloths for riding.

Ezek. 27:21 "Arabia and all the princes of Kedar, they were your customers for lambs, rams and goats; for these they were your customers.

Ezek. 27:22 "The traders of Sheba and Raamah, they traded with you; they paid for your wares with the best of all kinds of spices, and with all kinds of precious stones and gold.

Ezek. 27:23 "Haran, Canneh, Eden, the traders of Sheba, Asshur and Chilmad traded with you.

Ezek. 27:24 "They traded with you in choice garments, in clothes of blue and embroidered work, and in carpets of many colors and tightly wound cords, which were among your merchandise.

Ezek. 27:25 "The ships of Tarshish were the carriers for your merchandise.

         And you were filled and were very glorious

         In the heart of the seas.

Ezek. 27:26       "Your rowers have brought you

         Into great waters;

         The east wind has broken you

         In the heart of the seas.

Ezek. 27:27         "Your wealth, your wares, your merchandise,

         Your sailors and your pilots,

         Your repairers of seams, your dealers in merchandise

         And all your men of war who are in you,

         With all your company that is in your midst,

         Will fall into the heart of the seas

         On the day of your overthrow.

Ezek. 27:28         "At the sound of the cry of your pilots

         The pasture lands will shake.

Ezek. 27:29         "All who handle the oar,

         The sailors and all the pilots of the sea

         Will come down from their ships;

         They will stand on the land,

Ezek. 27:30         And they will make their voice heard over you

         And will cry bitterly.

         They will cast dust on their heads,

         They will wallow in ashes.

Ezek. 27:31         "Also they will make themselves bald for you

         And gird themselves with sackcloth;

         And they will weep for you in bitterness of soul

         With bitter mourning.

Ezek. 27:32         "Moreover, in their wailing they will take up a lamentation for you

         And lament over you:

         'Who is like Tyre,

         Like her who is silent in the midst of the sea?

Ezek. 27:33         'When your wares went out from the seas,

         You satisfied many peoples;

         With the abundance of your wealth and your merchandise

         You enriched the kings of earth.

Ezek. 27:34         'Now that you are broken by the seas

         In the depths of the waters,

         Your merchandise and all your company

         Have fallen in the midst of you.

Ezek. 27:35         'All the inhabitants of the coastlands

         Are appalled at you,

         And their kings are horribly afraid;

         They are troubled in countenance.

Ezek. 27:36         'The merchants among the peoples hiss at you;

         You have become terrified

         And you will cease to be forever.'"'"

Ezek. 28:1 The word of the LORD came again to me, saying,

Ezek. 28:2 "Son of man, say to the leader of Tyre, 'Thus says the Lord GOD,

         "Because your heart is lifted up

         And you have said, 'I am a god,

         I sit in the seat of gods

         In the heart of the seas';

         Yet you are a man and not God,

         Although you make your heart like the heart of God

Ezek. 28:3 Behold, you are wiser than Daniel;

         There is no secret that is a match for you.

Ezek. 28:4 "By your wisdom and understanding

         You have acquired riches for yourself

         And have acquired gold and silver for your treasuries.

Ezek. 28:5 "By your great wisdom, by your trade

         You have increased your riches

         And your heart is lifted up because of your riches

Ezek. 28:6 Therefore thus says the Lord GOD,

         'Because you have made your heart

         Like the heart of God,

Ezek. 28:7 Therefore, behold, I will bring strangers upon you,

         The most ruthless of the nations.

         And they will draw their swords

         Against the beauty of your wisdom

         And defile your splendor.

Ezek. 28:8 'They will bring you down to the pit,

         And you will die the death of those who are slain

         In the heart of the seas.

Ezek. 28:9 'Will you still say, "I am a god,"

         In the presence of your slayer,

         Though you are a man and not God,

         In the hands of those who wound you?

Ezek. 28:10         'You will die the death of the uncircumcised

         By the hand of strangers,

         For I have spoken!' declares the Lord GOD!"'"

Ezek. 28:11 Again the word of the LORD came to me saying,

Ezek. 28:12 "Son of man, take up a lamentation over the king of Tyre and say to him, 'Thus says the Lord GOD,

         "You had the seal of perfection,

         Full of wisdom and perfect in beauty.

Ezek. 28:13         "You were in Eden, the garden of God;

         Every precious stone was your covering:

         The ruby, the topaz and the diamond;

         The beryl, the onyx and the jasper;

         The lapis lazuli, the turquoise and the emerald;

         And the gold, the workmanship of your settings and sockets,

         Was in you.

         On the day that you were created

         They were prepared.

Ezek. 28:14         "You were the anointed cherub who covers,

         And I placed you there.

         You were on the holy mountain of God;

         You walked in the midst of the stones of fire.

Ezek. 28:15         "You were blameless in your ways

         From the day you were created

         Until unrighteousness was found in you.

Ezek. 28:16         "By the abundance of your trade

         You were internally filled with violence,

         And you sinned;

         Therefore I have cast you as profane

         From the mountain of God.

         And I have destroyed you, O covering cherub,

         From the midst of the stones of fire.

Ezek. 28:17         "Your heart was lifted up because of your beauty;

         You corrupted your wisdom by reason of your splendor.

         I cast you to the ground;

         I put you before kings,

         That they may see you.

Ezek. 28:18         "By the multitude of your iniquities,

         In the unrighteousness of your trade

         You profaned your sanctuaries.

         Therefore I have brought fire from the midst of you;

         It has consumed you,

         And I have turned you to ashes on the earth

         In the eyes of all who see you.

Ezek. 28:19         "All who know you among the peoples

         Are appalled at you;

         You have become terrified

         And you will cease to be forever."'"

Ezek. 28:20 And the word of the LORD came to me saying,

Ezek. 28:21 "Son of man, set your face toward Sidon, prophesy against her

Ezek. 28:22 and say, 'Thus says the Lord GOD,

         "Behold, I am against you, O Sidon,

         And I will be glorified in your midst.

         Then they will know that I am the LORD when I execute judgments in her,

         And I will manifest My holiness in her.

Ezek. 28:23         "For I will send pestilence to her

         And blood to her streets,

         And the wounded will fall in her midst

         By the sword upon her on every side;

         Then they will know that I am the LORD.

Ezek. 28:24 "And there will be no more for the house of Israel a prickling brier or a painful thorn from any round about them who scorned them; then they will know that I am the Lord GOD."

Ezek. 28:25 'Thus says the Lord GOD, "When I gather the house of Israel from the peoples among whom they are scattered, and will manifest My holiness in them in the sight of the nations, then they will live in their land which I gave to My servant Jacob.

Ezek. 28:26 "They will live in it securely; and they will build houses, plant vineyards and live securely when I execute judgments upon all who scorn them round about them. Then they will know that I am the LORD their God."'"

Ezek. 29:1 In the tenth year, in the tenth month, on the twelfth of the month, the word of the LORD came to me saying,

Ezek. 29:2 "Son of man, set your face against Pharaoh king of Egypt and prophesy against him and against all Egypt.

Ezek. 29:3 "Speak and say, 'Thus says the Lord GOD,

         "Behold, I am against you, Pharaoh king of Egypt,

         The great monster that lies in the midst of his rivers,

         That has said, 'My Nile is mine, and I myself have made it.'

Ezek. 29:4 "I will put hooks in your jaws

         And make the fish of your rivers cling to your scales.

         And I will bring you up out of the midst of your rivers,

         And all the fish of your rivers will cling to your scales.

Ezek. 29:5 "I will abandon you to the wilderness, you and all the fish of your rivers;

         You will fall on the open field; you will not be brought together or gathered.

         I have given you for food to the beasts of the earth and to the birds of the sky.

Ezek. 29:6 "Then all the inhabitants of Egypt will know that I am the LORD,

         Because they have been only a staff made of reed to the house of Israel.

Ezek. 29:7 "When they took hold of you with the hand,

         You broke and tore all their hands;

         And when they leaned on you,

         You broke and made all their loins quake."

Ezek. 29:8 'Therefore thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I will bring upon you a sword and I will cut off from you man and beast.

Ezek. 29:9 "The land of Egypt will become a desolation and waste. Then they will know that I am the LORD.

Because you said, 'The Nile is mine, and I have made it,'

Ezek. 29:10 therefore, behold, I am against you and against your rivers, and I will make the land of Egypt an utter waste and desolation, from Migdol to Syene and even to the border of Ethiopia.

Ezek. 29:11 "A man's foot will not pass through it, and the foot of a beast will not pass through it, and it will not be inhabited for forty years.

Ezek. 29:12 "So I will make the land of Egypt a desolation in the midst of desolated lands. And her cities, in the midst of cities that are laid waste, will be desolate forty years; and I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations and disperse them among the lands."

Ezek. 29:13 'For thus says the Lord GOD, "At the end of forty years I will gather the Egyptians from the peoples among whom they were scattered.

Ezek. 29:14 "I will turn the fortunes of Egypt and make them return to the land of Pathros, to the land of their origin, and there they will be a lowly kingdom.

Ezek. 29:15 "It will be the lowest of the kingdoms, and it will never again lift itself up above the nations. And I will make them so small that they will not rule over the nations.

Ezek. 29:16 "And it will never again be the confidence of the house of Israel, bringing to mind the iniquity of their having turned to Egypt. Then they will know that I am the Lord GOD."'"

Ezek. 29:17 Now in the twenty-seventh year, in the first month, on the first of the month, the word of the LORD came to me saying,

Ezek. 29:18 "Son of man, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon made his army labor hard against Tyre; every head was made bald and every shoulder was rubbed bare. But he and his army had no wages from Tyre for the labor that he had performed against it."

Ezek. 29:19 Therefore thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I will give the land of Egypt to Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon. And he will carry off her wealth and capture her spoil and seize her plunder; and it will be wages for his army.

Ezek. 29:20 "I have given him the land of Egypt for his labor which he performed, because they acted for Me," declares the Lord GOD.

Ezek. 29:21 "On that day I will make a horn sprout for the house of Israel, and I will open your mouth in their midst. Then they will know that I am the LORD."

Ezek. 30:1 The word of the LORD came again to me saying,

Ezek. 30:2 "Son of man, prophesy and say, 'Thus says the Lord GOD,

         "Wail, 'Alas for the day!'

Ezek. 30:3 "For the day is near,

         Even the day of the LORD is near;

         It will be a day of clouds,

         A time of doom for the nations.

Ezek. 30:4 "A sword will come upon Egypt,

         And anguish will be in Ethiopia;

         When the slain fall in Egypt,

         They take away her wealth,

         And her foundations are torn down.

Ezek. 30:5 "Ethiopia, Put, Lud, all Arabia, Libya and the people of the land that is in league will fall with them by the sword."

Ezek. 30:6         'Thus says the LORD,

         "Indeed, those who support Egypt will fall

         And the pride of her power will come down;

         From Migdol to Syene

         They will fall within her by the sword,"

         Declares the Lord GOD.

Ezek. 30:7 "They will be desolate

         In the midst of the desolated lands;

         And her cities will be

         In the midst of the devastated cities.

Ezek. 30:8 "And they will know that I am the LORD,

         When I set a fire in Egypt

         And all her helpers are broken.

Ezek. 30:9 "On that day messengers will go forth from Me in ships to frighten secure Ethiopia; and anguish will be on them as on the day of Egypt; for behold, it comes!"

Ezek. 30:10 'Thus says the Lord GOD,

         "I will also make the hordes of Egypt cease

         By the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon.

Ezek. 30:11         "He and his people with him,

         The most ruthless of the nations,

         Will be brought in to destroy the land;

         And they will draw their swords against Egypt

         And fill the land with the slain.

Ezek. 30:12         "Moreover, I will make the Nile canals dry

         And sell the land into the hands of evil men.

         And I will make the land desolate

         And all that is in it,

         By the hand of strangers; I the LORD have spoken."

Ezek. 30:13 'Thus says the Lord GOD,

         "I will also destroy the idols

         And make the images cease from Memphis.

         And there will no longer be a prince in the land of Egypt;

         And I will put fear in the land of Egypt.

Ezek. 30:14         "I will make Pathros desolate,

         Set a fire in Zoan

         And execute judgments on Thebes.

Ezek. 30:15         "I will pour out My wrath on Sin,

         The stronghold of Egypt;

         I will also cut off the hordes of Thebes.

Ezek. 30:16         "I will set a fire in Egypt;

         Sin will writhe in anguish,

         Thebes will be breached

         And Memphis will have distresses daily.

Ezek. 30:17         "The young men of On and of Pi-beseth

         Will fall by the sword,

         And the women will go into captivity.

Ezek. 30:18         "In Tehaphnehes the day will be dark

         When I break there the yoke bars of Egypt.

         Then the pride of her power will cease in her;

         A cloud will cover her,

         And her daughters will go into captivity.

Ezek. 30:19         "Thus I will execute judgments on Egypt,

         And they will know that I am the LORD."'"

Ezek. 30:20 In the eleventh year, in the first month, on the seventh of the month, the word of the LORD came to me saying,

Ezek. 30:21 "Son of man, I have broken the arm of Pharaoh king of Egypt; and, behold, it has not been bound up for healing or wrapped with a bandage, that it may be strong to hold the sword.

Ezek. 30:22 "Therefore thus says the Lord GOD, 'Behold, I am against Pharaoh king of Egypt and will break his arms, both the strong and the broken; and I will make the sword fall from his hand.

Ezek. 30:23 'I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations and disperse them among the lands.

Ezek. 30:24 'For I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon and put My sword in his hand; and I will break the arms of Pharaoh, so that he will groan before him with the groanings of a wounded man.

Ezek. 30:25 'Thus I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon, but the arms of Pharaoh will fall. Then they will know that I am the LORD, when I put My sword into the hand of the king of Babylon and he stretches it out against the land of Egypt.

Ezek. 30:26 'When I scatter the Egyptians among the nations and disperse them among the lands, then they will know that I am the LORD.'"

Ezek. 31:1 In the eleventh year, in the third month, on the first of the month, the word of the LORD came to me saying,

Ezek. 31:2 "Son of man, say to Pharaoh king of Egypt and to his hordes,

         'Whom are you like in your greatness?

Ezek. 31:3 'Behold, Assyria was a cedar in Lebanon

         With beautiful branches and forest shade,

         And very high,

         And its top was among the clouds.

Ezek. 31:4 'The waters made it grow, the deep made it high.

         With its rivers it continually extended all around its planting place,

         And sent out its channels to all the trees of the field.

Ezek. 31:5 'Therefore its height was loftier than all the trees of the field

         And its boughs became many and its branches long

         Because of many waters as it spread them out.

Ezek. 31:6 'All the birds of the heavens nested in its boughs,

         And under its branches all the beasts of the field gave birth,

         And all great nations lived under its shade.

Ezek. 31:7 'So it was beautiful in its greatness, in the length of its branches;

         For its roots extended to many waters.

Ezek. 31:8 'The cedars in God's garden could not match it;

         The cypresses could not compare with its boughs,

         And the plane trees could not match its branches.

         No tree in God's garden could compare with it in its beauty.

Ezek. 31:9 'I made it beautiful with the multitude of its branches,

         And all the trees of Eden, which were in the garden of God, were jealous of it.

Ezek. 31:10 'Therefore thus says the Lord GOD, "Because it is high in stature and has set its top among the clouds, and its heart is haughty in its loftiness,

Ezek. 31:11 therefore I will give it into the hand of a despot of the nations; he will thoroughly deal with it. According to its wickedness I have driven it away.

Ezek. 31:12 "Alien tyrants of the nations have cut it down and left it; on the mountains and in all the valleys its branches have fallen and its boughs have been broken in all the ravines of the land. And all the peoples of the earth have gone down from its shade and left it.

Ezek. 31:13 "On its ruin all the birds of the heavens will dwell, and all the beasts of the field will be on its fallen branches

Ezek. 31:14 so that all the trees by the waters may not be exalted in their stature, nor set their top among the clouds, nor their well-watered mighty ones stand erect in their height. For they have all been given over to death, to the earth beneath, among the sons of men, with those who go down to the pit."

Ezek. 31:15 'Thus says the Lord GOD, "On the day when it went down to Sheol I caused lamentations; I closed the deep over it and held back its rivers. And its many waters were stopped up, and I made Lebanon mourn for it, and all the trees of the field wilted away on account of it.

Ezek. 31:16 "I made the nations quake at the sound of its fall when I made it go down to Sheol with those who go down to the pit; and all the well-watered trees of Eden, the choicest and best of Lebanon, were comforted in the earth beneath.

Ezek. 31:17 "They also went down with it to Sheol to those who were slain by the sword; and those who were its strength lived under its shade among the nations.

Ezek. 31:18 "To which among the trees of Eden are you thus equal in glory and greatness? Yet you will be brought down with the trees of Eden to the earth beneath; you will lie in the midst of the uncircumcised, with those who were slain by the sword. So is Pharaoh and all his hordes!"' declares the Lord GOD."

Ezek. 32:1 In the twelfth year, in the twelfth month, on the first of the month, the word of the LORD came to me saying,

Ezek. 32:2 "Son of man, take up a lamentation over Pharaoh king of Egypt and say to him,

         'You compared yourself to a young lion of the nations,

         Yet you are like the monster in the seas;

         And you burst forth in your rivers

         And muddied the waters with your feet

         And fouled their rivers.'"

Ezek. 32:3 Thus says the Lord GOD,

         "Now I will spread My net over you

         With a company of many peoples,

         And they shall lift you up in My net.

Ezek. 32:4 "I will leave you on the land;

         I will cast you on the open field.

         And I will cause all the birds of the heavens to dwell on you,

         And I will satisfy the beasts of the whole earth with you.

Ezek. 32:5 "I will lay your flesh on the mountains

         And fill the valleys with your refuse.

Ezek. 32:6 "I will also make the land drink the discharge of your blood

         As far as the mountains,

         And the ravines will be full of you.

Ezek. 32:7 "And when I extinguish you,

         I will cover the heavens and darken their stars;

         I will cover the sun with a cloud

         And the moon will not give its light.

Ezek. 32:8 "All the shining lights in the heavens

         I will darken over you

         And will set darkness on your land,"

         Declares the Lord GOD.

Ezek. 32:9 "I will also trouble the hearts of many peoples when I bring your destruction among the nations, into lands which you have not known.

Ezek. 32:10 "I will make many peoples appalled at you, and their kings will be horribly afraid of you when I brandish My sword before them; and they will tremble every moment, every man for his own life, on the day of your fall."

Ezek. 32:11 For thus says the Lord GOD, "The sword of the king of Babylon will come upon you.

Ezek. 32:12 "By the swords of the mighty ones I will cause your hordes to fall; all of them are tyrants of the nations,

         And they will devastate the pride of Egypt,

         And all its hordes will be destroyed.

Ezek. 32:13         "I will also destroy all its cattle from beside many waters;

         And the foot of man will not muddy them anymore

         And the hoofs of beasts will not muddy them.

Ezek. 32:14         "Then I will make their waters settle

         And will cause their rivers to run like oil,"

         Declares the Lord GOD.

Ezek. 32:15         "When I make the land of Egypt a desolation,

         And the land is destitute of that which filled it,

         When I smite all those who live in it,

         Then they shall know that I am the LORD.

Ezek. 32:16 "This is a lamentation and they shall chant it. The daughters of the nations shall chant it. Over Egypt and over all her hordes they shall chant it," declares the Lord GOD.

Ezek. 32:17 In the twelfth year, on the fifteenth of the month, the word of the LORD came to me saying,

Ezek. 32:18 "Son of man, wail for the hordes of Egypt and bring it down, her and the daughters of the powerful nations, to the nether world, with those who go down to the pit;

Ezek. 32:19         'Whom do you surpass in beauty?

         Go down and make your bed with the uncircumcised.'

Ezek. 32:20 "They shall fall in the midst of those who are slain by the sword. She is given over to the sword; they have drawn her and all her hordes away.

Ezek. 32:21 "The strong among the mighty ones shall speak of him and his helpers from the midst of Sheol, 'They have gone down, they lie still, the uncircumcised, slain by the sword.'

Ezek. 32:22 "Assyria is there and all her company; her graves are round about her. All of them are slain, fallen by the sword,

Ezek. 32:23 whose graves are set in the remotest parts of the pit and her company is round about her grave. All of them are slain, fallen by the sword, who spread terror in the land of the living.

Ezek. 32:24 "Elam is there and all her hordes around her grave; all of them slain, fallen by the sword, who went down uncircumcised to the lower parts of the earth, who instilled their terror in the land of the living and bore their disgrace with those who went down to the pit.

Ezek. 32:25 "They have made a bed for her among the slain with all her hordes. Her graves are around it, they are all uncircumcised, slain by the sword (although their terror was instilled in the land of the living), and they bore their disgrace with those who go down to the pit; they were put in the midst of the slain.

Ezek. 32:26 "Meshech, Tubal and all their hordes are there; their graves surround them. All of them were slain by the sword uncircumcised, though they instilled their terror in the land of the living.

Ezek. 32:27 "Nor do they lie beside the fallen heroes of the uncircumcised, who went down to Sheol with their weapons of war and whose swords were laid under their heads; but the punishment for their iniquity rested on their bones, though the terror of these heroes was once in the land of the living.

Ezek. 32:28 "But in the midst of the uncircumcised you will be broken and lie with those slain by the sword.

Ezek. 32:29 "There also is Edom, its kings and all its princes, who for all their might are laid with those slain by the sword; they will lie with the uncircumcised and with those who go down to the pit.

Ezek. 32:30 "There also are the chiefs of the north, all of them, and all the Sidonians, who in spite of the terror resulting from their might, in shame went down with the slain. So they lay down uncircumcised with those slain by the sword and bore their disgrace with those who go down to the pit.

Ezek. 32:31 "These Pharaoh will see, and he will be comforted for all his hordes slain by the sword, even Pharaoh and all his army," declares the Lord GOD.

Ezek. 32:32 "Though I instilled a terror of him in the land of the living, yet he will be made to lie down among the uncircumcised along with those slain by the sword, even Pharaoh and all his hordes," declares the Lord GOD.





(Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, with Groves-Wheeler Westminster Hebrew Morphology)


:rOmaEl yAlEa hDwhy_rAbd yIhyw Ezek. 25:1

aEbΊnIhw Nw;mAo yEnV;b_lRa KyRnDp MyIc MdDa_NR;b Ezek. 25:2


hIwhy yDnOdSa_rAb;d woVmIv Nw$;mAo yEnVbIl D;trAm`Daw Ezek. 25:3

yIv;dVqIm_lRa j%DaRh JKrVmDa NAoy hӖwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa_hO;k

h$dwhy tyE;b_lRaw hD;m$Avn yI;k  lEarVcy tAmdAa_lRaw l#Djn_y`Ik

:h`DlwgA;b wkVlDh yI;k

wbVvyw h#DvrwmVl Md%q_ynVbIl JKnVtOn ynnIh N&EkDl Ezek. 25:4

JKYyrIp wlVkay hD;mEh MRhynV;kVvIm JKDb wnVtDnw JK$D;b MRhyEtwryIf

:JK`EbDlSj w;tVvy hD;mEhw

Nw;mAo yEnV;b_tRaw My$I;lAmg hEwnIl hD;br_tRa yI;tAtnw Ezek. 25:5

s :h`Dwhy yInSa_y`I;k MR;tVody`Iw Nax_XA;brImVl

KSoVqrw dYy KSaVjAm NAoy hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hOk yI;k Ezek. 25:6

:l`EarVcy tAmdAa_lRa vRpYnV;b KVfa`Dv_lDkV;b jAmVcI;tw lgrV;b

gAbVl_KyI;tAtnw Ky#RlDo y%dy_tRa yItyIfn ynnIh N&EkDl Ezek. 25:7

KyI;tdAbSaAhw My$I;mAoDh_NIm KyI;trVkIhw MYywgAl [zAb][Vl]

s :h`Dwhy yInSa_y`I;k D;tVodyw $KdyImVvAa twxrSaDh_NIm

ry$IoEcw bDawm rOmSa NAoGy hIwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k Ezek. 25:8

:hdwhy tyE;b MIywgAh_l`DkV;k hEnIh

My$rDoRhEm bDawm PRtR;k_tRa Aj%EtOp ynnIh NEkDl Ezek. 25:9

NwoVm lAoA;b t$OmyIvyAh tyE;b XrRa y#IbVx whEx;qIm wyrDo`Em

[:hDmy`DtyrIq][w] hDmVtyrIqw

hDvrwmVl DhyI;tAtnw Nw$;mAo yEnV;b_lAo MdЮq_ynVbIl Ezek. 25:10

:M`IywgA;b Nw;mAo_y`EnV;b rEk·zIt_al NAoAmVl

s :h`Dwhy yInSa_y`I;k wodyw MyIfDpVv hRcToRa bDawmVbw Ezek. 25:11

MOqnI;b MwdTa twcSo NAoAy hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k Ezek. 25:12

:M`RhDb wmV;qnw MwvDa wmVvVayw hdwhy tyEbVl Mqn

ydy yItIfnw hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k N#EkDl Ezek. 25:13

hD;brDj DhyI;tAtnw hDmEhVbw MdDa hΊnR;mIm yI;trVkIhw Mw$dTa_lAo

:wlOpy brRjA;b hnddw N$DmyE;tIm

l$EarVcy yI;mAo dyV;b Mw#dTaR;b y%ItDmVqn_tRa yI;tAtnw Ezek. 25:14

MUan y$ItDmVqn_tRa Њwod`Dyw yItDmSjAkw yIpAaV;k Mw$dTaRb wcDow

p :h`Iwhy yDnOdSa

MyI;tVvIlVp twcSo NAoAy hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k Ezek. 25:15

:M`Dlwo tAbyEa tyIjVvAmVl vRpYnV;b fDaVvI;b Mqn wmVqΊnyw hDmqnI;b

ydy hRfwn ynnIh hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k N#EkDl Ezek. 25:16

tyrEaVv_tRa y$I;tdAbSaAhw MyItrV;k_tRa yI;trVkIhw My$I;tVvIlVp_lAo

:M`DyAh Pwj

hDmEj twjVkwtV;b tw$lOd׊g twmqn MDb yItyIcDow Ezek. 25:17

s :M`D;b yItDmVqn_tRa yI;tItV;b hYwhy yInSa_y`I;k Њwod`Dyw

hDyDh vdOjAl dDjRaV;b hDnDv hrVcRo_y`E;tVvAoV;b yIhyw Ezek. 26:1

:rOmaEl yAlEa hDwhy_rAbd

j$DaRh MAlDvwry_lAo rOx hrVmDa_rRvSa NAoy M#dDa_NR;b Ezek. 26:2

:hDbrFjDh hDaVlD;mIa yDlEa hD;bEsn MyI;mAoDh twtVl;d hrV;bVvn

rOx JKyAlDo yInnIh hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k N#EkDl Ezek. 26:3

:wy`D;lgVl MDyAh twlSoAhV;k My$I;br MIywg JKyAlDo yItyElSoAhw

yItyEj`Isw Dhy$Rl;dgIm Њwsr`Dhw r#Ox twmOj wtSjIvw Ezek. 26:4

:oAl`Ds AjyIjVxIl ;hDtwa yI;tAtnw hΊnR;mIm ;hrDpSo

yInSa yI;k MYΥyAh JKwtV;b hyVh`I;t MyImrSj jAfVvIm Ezek. 26:5

:M`IywgAl zAbVl hDtyDhw hIwhy yDnOdSa MUan yI;tr$A;bd

wodyw hngrDhE;t brRjA;b h$dDcA;b rRvSa DhyRtwnVbw Ezek. 26:6

p :h`Dwhy yInSa_yI;k

r#Ox_lRa ayIbEm yInnIh hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hOk yI;k Ezek. 26:7

swsV;b MyIkDlVm JKRlRm NwpDxIm lRbD;b_JKRl`Rm rAxardAkwbn

:br_MAow lDhqw MyIvrDpVbw bRkrVbw

qGy;d JKy%AlDo NAtnw gOrShy brRjA;b hdDcA;b JKyAtwnV;b Ezek. 26:8

:h`DnIx JKyAlDo MyqEhw h$DlVlOs JKyAlDo JKApDvw

XO;ty JKy$Atl;dgImw JKyDtwmOjV;b NE;ty w$;lDbq yIjVmw Ezek. 26:9


lŊgVlgw vrDp  lw;qIm MqDbSa JKE;sAky wyDsws tAoVpIvIm Ezek. 26:10

ryIo yEawbVmI;k JKy$rDoVvI;b wabV;b JKy$Atwmwj hnVvAorI;t bRk#rw


JKE;mAo JKyDtwxwj_lD;k_tRa sOmry wy$Dsws twsrApV;b Ezek. 26:11

:drE;t XrDaDl JKEzUo twbVxAmw g$OrShy brRjA;b

JKy$Atwmwj Њwsr`Dhw JK$EtD;lUkr Њwzz`Dbw JK#ElyEj wlVlDvw Ezek. 26:12

MyAm JKwtV;b JK$rDpSo`Aw JKyAxEow JKyAnDbSaw wxO;ty JKEt;dVmRj yE;tDbw


oAmDvy al JKy$rwnI;k lwqw JKyryIv NwmSh yI;tA;bVvIhw Ezek. 26:13


al hYyVh`I;t MyImrSj jAfVvIm oAl#Rs AjyIjVxIl JKyI;tAtnw Ezek. 26:14

s :h`Iwhy yDnOdSa MUan yI;tr$A;b;d hwhy yInSa yI;k dwo hRnD;bIt

lw;qIm alSh rwxVl hIwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k Ezek. 26:15

:My`IyIaDh wvSory JK$EkwtV;b grRh grDhE;b l%DlDj qOnTaR;b JK#E;tVlApAm

ЊwryIsEhw MYΥyAh yEayIcn lO;k M#DtwaVsI;k lAoEm wdryw Ezek. 26:16

ЊwvD;bVly twdrSj wfOvVpy MDtDmVqr ydgI;b_tRaw M$RhyElyIoVm_tRa

:JKy`DlDo wmVmDvw My$IogrIl Њwdr`Djw wb$Evy XrDaDh_lAo

V;td$AbDa JKyEa JK$Dl wrVmDaw hnyIq JKyAlDo waVcnw Ezek. 26:17

ayIh MΥyAb hqzSj hDtyDh rRvSa hDl#D;lUhAh ryIoDh MyI;mťyIm tRbRvwn

:Dhy`RbVvwy_lDkVl MDtyI;tIj wnVtn_rRvSa Dhy$RbVvOyw

MyIyIaDh wlShVbnw JKE;tVlApAm Mwy NYyIa`Dh wdrVjy hD;tAo Ezek. 26:18

s :JK`EtaExIm MDyA;b_rRvSa

ryIo JKDtOa yI;tItV;b hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hOk yI;k Ezek. 26:19

JKyAlDo twlSoAhV;b wbDvwn_al rRvSa MyrDoR;k tRb$rTjn

:My`I;brDh MyA;mAh JKw;sIkw Mw$hV;t_tRa

M#Dlwo MAo_lRa rw%b ydrwy_tRa JKyI;tdrwhw Ezek. 26:20

ydrwy_tRa MDlwo`Em twbrFjD;k twyI;tVjA;t XrRaV;b JKyI;tVbAvwhw

:My`IyAj XrRaV;b yIbVx yI;tAtnw yIbEvEt al NAoAmVl rw$b

yIaVxD;mIt_alw y#IvVqUbVtw JKEnyEaw JKEnV;tRa twhD;lA;b Ezek. 26:21

s :h`Iwhy yDnOdSa MUan M$DlwoVl dwo

:rOmaEl yAlEa hDwhy_rAbd yIhyw Ezek. 27:1

:h`DnyIq rOx_lAo aDc M$dDa_NRb hD;tAaw Ezek. 27:2

tOawbVm_lAo [tRbRvOy][Ah] yI;tVbAvOyAh rw#xVl D;trAmDaw Ezek. 27:3

hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k MyI;br MyIyIa_lRa My$I;mAo`Dh tRlRkOr MYy

:yIpOy tAlyIlV;k yInSa V;tr$AmDa V;tAa rwx

:JK`EyVpy wlVlD;k JKynO;b JKyDlwb׊g MyI;my bElV;b Ezek. 27:4

zrRa MyDtOj`Ul_lD;k tEa JK$Dl wnD;b rynVcIm MyIvwrV;b Ezek. 27:5

:JKy`DlDo NrO;t twcSoAl wj$qDl NwnDbV;lIm

NEv_wc`Do JKEvrq JKyDfwvIm wcDo NDv$D;bIm Mynw;lAa Ezek. 27:6

[:My`IyI;tI;k] MyI;tI;k yEyIaEm My$rUvSa_tA;b

JKDl twyVhIl JK$EcrVpIm hDyDh MyrVxI;mIm hDmVqrV;b_vEv Ezek. 27:7

:JK`E;sAkVm hDyDh hDvyIlTa yEyIaEm NDmΊgrAaw tRlEkV;t sEnVl

rwx JKyAmDkSj JKDl MyIfDv wyDh dYwrAaw NwdyIx yEbVvOy Ezek. 27:8

:JKy`DlVbOj hD;mEh JK$Db wyDh

JKqdI;b yqyzSjAm JK$Db wyDh DhyRmDkSjw lAbg ynVqz Ezek. 27:9

:JK`EbrSoAm bOrSoAl JK$Db wyDh MRhyEj`D;lAmw MDyAh twynFa_lD;k

JKE;tVmAjVlIm yEvnAa JK$ElyEjVb wyDh fwpw dwlw srDp Ezek. 27:10

:JKrdSh wnVtn hD;mEh JK$Db_w;lI;t oAbwkw NEgDm

My$dD;mgw by$IbDs JKyAtwmwj_lAo JK#ElyEjw dAwrAa yEnV;b Ezek. 27:11

hD;mEh by$IbDs JKyAtwmwj_lAo w;lI;t MRhyEfVlIv wyDh JKyAtwl;dgImV;b

:JK`EyVpy wlVlD;k

 lzrA;b PRsRkV;b Nwh_lD;k bOrEm JKE;trAjOs vyIvrA;t Ezek. 27:12

:JKy`DnwbzIo wnVtn tr$Rpwow lydV;b

yElVkw MdDa vRpRnV;b JKyDlVkOr hD;mEh JKRv$Rmw  lAbU;t NDwy Ezek. 27:13

:JK`EbrSoAm wnVtn tRv$Ojn

wnVtn My$drVpw MyIvr`Dpw MyIsws hDmrgw;t tyE;bIm Ezek. 27:14


JKdy trOjVs MyI;br MyIyIa JKy$AlVkOr Ndd yEnV;b Ezek. 27:15

:JKrD;kVvRa wbyIvEh [MyYnVbDh][w] MynVbwhw NEv twnrq

NDmΊgrAa JKRpOnV;b JKyDcSoAm bOrEm JKE;trAjOs MrSa Ezek. 27:16

:JKy`DnwbzIoV;b wnVtn d$O;kdAkw tOmarw Xwbw hDmVqrw

yEfIjV;b JKyDlVkOr hD;mEh l$EarVcy XrRaw hdwhy Ezek. 27:17

:JK`EbrSoAm wnVtn yr$Oxw NRmRvw vAbdw gŊnApw tynIm

Nwh_lD;k bOrEm JKyAcSoAm bOrV;b JKE;trAjOs qRcR;m;d Ezek. 27:18

:rAj`Dx rRmRxw Nw;bVlRj NyEyV;b

twvDo lRzrA;b wnDtn JKyAnwbzIoV;b lY·zwaVm Nwyw Ndw Ezek. 27:19

:h`DyDh JKEbrSoAmV;b hYnqw h;dIq

:h`D;bVkrVl vRpOj_ydgIbVb JK$E;tVlAkOr Nd;d Ezek. 27:20

JKdy yrSjOs hD;mEh r$dq yEayIcn_lDkw brSo Ezek. 27:21

:JKyrSjOs MD;b My$dw;tAow MyIlyEaw MyrDkV;b

varV;b JKyDlVkOr hD;mEh h$DmVorw aDbVv yElVkOr Ezek. 27:22

:JKy`DnwbzIo wnVtn b$Dhzw hrqy NRbRa_lDkVbw MRc%O;b_lD;k

dAmVlI;k rwvAa aDbVv yElVkOr Nd$Row hnAkw NrDj Ezek. 27:23


h$DmVqrw tRlEkV;t yEmwlgI;b My$IlUlVkAmVb JKyAlVkOr hD;mEh Ezek. 27:24

:JK`E;tVlUkrAmV;b MyIzrSaw MyIvUbSj MyIlDbSjA;b MyImOrV;b yEzngVbw

yIaVlD;mI;tw JKEbrSoAm JKyAtwrDv vy$IvrA;t twynFa Ezek. 27:25

:My`I;my bElV;b dOaVm ydV;bVkI;t`Aw

Ajwr JKDtOa MyIfDvAh JKw$ayIbTh MyI;br MyAmV;b Ezek. 27:26

:My`I;my bElV;b JKrDbVv My$d;qAh

JKyDlVbOjw JKyAjD;lAm JKEbrSoAm JKyYnwbzIow JKnwh Ezek. 27:27

JK%E;tVmAjVlIm yEvnAa_lDkw JKEbrSoAm yEbrOo`Vw KqdIb yqyzSjAm

My$I;my bElV;b ЊwlVpy JK$EkwtV;b rRvSa JKElDhVq_lDkVbw JK#D;b_rRvSa

:JK`E;tVlApAm MwyV;b

:twvOrgIm wvSory JKyDlVbOj tqSoz lwqVl Ezek. 27:28

MyIjD;lAm fw$vDm yEcVpO;t lO;k M#RhyEtwynDaEm wdry`Vw Ezek. 27:29

:wdOmSoy XrDaDh_lRa MDyAh yElVbOj lO;k

wlSoyw hrDm wqSozyw M$DlwqV;b JKyAlDo woyImVvIhw Ezek. 27:30

:wv`D;lApVty rRpEaD;b M$RhyEvar_lAo rDpDo

wkDbw My;qAc wrgDjw h$Djrq JKyAlEa wjyrVqIhw Ezek. 27:31

:r`Dm dEpVsIm vRpRn_rAmV;b JKyAlEa

yIm JKyDlDo wnnwqw hYnyIq MRhynV;b JKyAlEa waVcnw Ezek. 27:32

:M`DyAh JKwtV;b hDmdV;k rw$xVk

MyI;br MyI;mAo V;tAoA;bVcIh My$I;mťyIm JKynwbzIo taExV;b Ezek. 27:33

:Xr`Da_yEkVlAm V;trAvToRh JKy$AbrSoAmw JKynwh bOrV;b

JKEbrSoAm MyDm_y;qAmSo`AmV;b MyI;mťyIm trR;bVvn tEo Ezek. 27:34

:wl`Dpn JKEkwtV;b JKElDhVq_lDkw

wrSoDc MRhyEkVlAmw JKyDlDo wmVmDv MyYyIaDh yEbVvOy lO;k Ezek. 27:35

:My`InDp wmSor rAo$Ac

tyYyDh twhD;lA;b JKyDlDo wqrDv My$I;mAoD;b MyrSjOs Ezek. 27:36

s :M`Dlwo_dAo JKEnyEaw

:rOmaEl yAlEa hDwhy_rAbd yIhyw Ezek. 28:1

hGwOhy yDnOdSa rAmDa_hO;k r%Ox dygnIl rOmTa M&dDa_NR;b Ezek. 28:2

bElV;b yI;tVbAvy MyIhlTa bAvwm yn$Da lEa rRma;tw KV;bIl ;hAbΊg NAoAy

:My`IhlTa bElV;k KV;bIl NE;tI;tw l$Ea_al`Vw MdDa hD;tAaw MyI;my

MwtDs_lD;k [lEayn;d][Im] lEan;dIm hD;tAa MDkDj hEnIh Ezek. 28:3

:KwmDmSo al

bDhz cAoA;tw lyDj KV;l DtyIcDo $KVtDnwbVtIbw KVt`DmVkDjV;b Ezek. 28:4

:Ky`RtwrVxwaV;b PRsRkw

;hA;bgyw KRlyEj DtyI;brIh KVtD;lUkrI;b KVtDmVkDj bOrV;b Ezek. 28:5

s :K`RlyEjV;b KVbDbVl

KVbDbVl_tRa KV;tI;t NAoAy hIwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k NEkDl Ezek. 28:6

:My`IhlTa bElV;k

MIywg yExyrDo My$rz KyRlDo ayIbEm ynnIh N#EkDl Ezek. 28:7

:K`RtDoVpy wlV;lIjw K$RtDmVkDj yIpy_lAo MDtwbrAj wqyrEhw

:My`I;my bElV;b lDlDj yEtwmVm hD;tAmw Kwdrwy tAjAvAl Ezek. 28:8

hD;tAaw KRgrOh yEnVpIl yn$Da MyIhlTa rAma;t rOmDaRh Ezek. 28:9

:Ky`RlVlAjVm dAyV;b lEa_alw MdDa

yI;tr$A;bd yInSa yI;k Myrz_dyV;b twmD;t MyIlrSo yEtwm Ezek. 28:10

s :h`Iwhy yDnOdSa MUan

:rOmaEl yAlEa hDwhy_rAbd yIhyw Ezek. 28:11

w#;l D;trAmDaw rwx JKRlRm_lAo hDnyIq aDc MdDa_NR;b Ezek. 28:12

hDmVkDj aElDm tyYnVkD;t MEtwj hD;tAa hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k

:yIpOy lyIlVkw

KRtDkUsVm hrqy NRbRa_lD;k DtyGyDh My%IhlTa_NŊg NdEoV;b Ezek. 28:13

JKRp$On ryIpAs h$EpVvDyw MAhOv vyIvrA;t M#lShyw hޏdVfIp MdOa

KSarD;bIh MwyV;b JK$D;b KyRbqnw KyRpU;t tRkaRlVm bDhzw tqrDbw


vdOq rAhV;b Ky#I;tAtnw JKEkw;sAh jAvVmIm bw$rV;k_V;tAa Ezek. 28:14

:D;tVk`D;lAhVtIh vEa_ynVbAa JKwtV;b DtyYyDh MyIhlTa

aDxVmn_dAo JKDar`D;bIh MwyIm Ky$RkrdI;b hD;tAa MyImD;t Ezek. 28:15

:JK`D;b hDtDlwAo

aDfTjR;t`Aw sDmDj KVkwt wlDm #KVtD;lUkr bOrV;b Ezek. 28:16

JKw;tIm JK$EkO;sAh bwrV;k KdR;bAa`Dw MyIhlTa rAhEm KVlR;lAjRaw


KRtDoVpy_lAo KVtDmVkDj D;tAjIv KYyVpyV;b KV;bIl ;hAbΊg Ezek. 28:17

:JK`Db hwSarVl KyI;tAtn MyIkDlVm yEnVpIl Ky#I;tVkAlVvIh XrRa_lAo

KyRv;dVqIm D;tVlA;lIj $KVtD;lUkr  lwRoV;b KyGnOwSo bOrEm Ezek. 28:18

rRpEaVl KnR;tRaw KVt$AlDkSa ayIh KVkw;tIm vEa_aIxwa`Dw

:Ky`Rar_lD;k yEnyEoVl Xr$DaDh_lAo

DtyYyDh twhD;lA;b KyRlDo wmVmDv My$I;mAo`D;b KyRodwy_lD;k Ezek. 28:19

p :M`Dlwo_dAo KnyEaw

:rOmaEl yAlEa hDwhy_rAbd yIhyw Ezek. 28:20

:Dhy`RlDo aEbΊnIhw NwdyIx_lRa KyRnDp MyIc MdDa_NR;b Ezek. 28:21

JKyAlDo yInnIh hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k #D;trAmDaw Ezek. 28:22

;hDb yItwcSoA;b hGwhy yInSa_y`I;k wody`Vw JKEkwtV;b yI;tdA;bVknw Nw$dyIx

:;h`Db yI;tVv;dVqnw MyIfDpVv

 lDlDj lAlVpnw Dhy$RtwxwjV;b Mdw rRb;d ;hDb_yI;tVjA;lIvw Ezek. 28:23

:h`Dwhy yInSa_y`I;k wodyw byIbD;sIm DhyRlDo brRjV;b ;h$DkwtV;b

ryIaVmAm Nw;lIs l#EarVcy tyEbVl dw%o hyVhy_alw Ezek. 28:24

yInSa yI;k w$odDyw MDtwa MyIfaDvAh M$DtObyIbVs  lO;kIm b$IaVkAm Xwqw

s :h`Iwhy yDnOdSa

l#EarVcy tyE;b_tRa yIxV;bqV;b ~hwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa_hO;k Ezek. 28:25

MIywgAh yEnyEoVl MDb yI;tVv;dVqnw M$Db wxOpn rRvSa MyI;mAo`Dh_NIm

:bOqSoyVl y;dVbAoVl yI;tAtn rRvSa M$DtDmdAa_lAo ЊwbVv`Dyw

My$ImrVk woVfnw MyI;tDb wnDbw ~jAfRbDl DhyRlDo wbVvyw Ezek. 28:26

MDtOa MyIfaDvAh lOkV;b My#IfDpVv yItwcSoA;b jAfRbDl wbVvyw

s :M`RhyEhlTa hDwhy yInSa yI;k w$odDyw M$DtwbyIbV;sIm

vdOjAl rDcDo MyEnVvI;b yrIcSoD;b ty$ryIcSoDh hnDvA;b Ezek. 29:1

:rOmaEl yAlEa hDwhy_rAbd hDyDh

MyrVxIm JKRlRm hOorAp_lAo KyYnDp MyIc MdDa_NR;b Ezek. 29:2

:;h`D;lU;k MyrVxIm_lAow wy$DlDo aEbΊnIhw

KyRlDo yInnIh hGwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa_hO;k %D;trAmDaw rE;b;d Ezek. 29:3

wyrOay JKwtV;b XEbOrDh lw$dΊgAh MynA;tAh My$rVxIm_JKRl`Rm hOorAp

:yn`ItyIcSo yInSaw yrOay yIl rAmDa rRvSa

yI;tVqA;bdIhw KyYyDjVlI;b [MyIjAj] MyyIjAj yI;tAtnw Ezek. 29:4

tEaw Ky$rOay JKw;tIm KyItyIlSoAhw KyRtOcVqVcqV;b KyrOay_tgd

:q`D;bdI;t KyRtOcVqVcqV;b Ky$rOay tAg;d_lD;k

Ky$rOay tAg;d_lD;k tEaw KVtwa hr#D;bdI;mAh KyI;tVvAfnw Ezek. 29:5

tAyAjVl XEb;qIt alw PEsDaEt al lw$pI;t hdDcAh yEnVp_lAo

:h`DlVkDaVl KyI;tAtn MyAmDvAh PwoVlw XrDaDh

NAoAy hDwhy yInSa yI;k My$rVxIm yEbVvOy_lD;k Њwod`Dyw Ezek. 29:6

:l`EarVcy tyEbVl hRnq tnRoVvIm MDtwyTh

MRhDl D;tVoqDbw Xw$rE;t [PA;k][Ab] KVpA;kAb KV;b MDcVpDtV;b Ezek. 29:7

MRhDl D;tdAmSoAhw r$EbDvI;t KyRlDo MDnSoDv`IhVbw PEtD;k_lD;k

s :My`DnVtDm_lD;k

JKyAlDo ayIbEm yInnIh hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k N#EkDl Ezek. 29:8

:h`DmEhVbw MdDa JKE;mIm yI;trVkIhw brDj

wodyw h$D;brDjw hDmDmVvIl MyrVxIm_Xr`Ra hDtyDhw Ezek. 29:9

:yIty`IcDo yInSaw yIl rOay rAmDa NAoAy hDwhy yInSa_y`I;k

XrRa_tRa yI;tAtnw KyrOay_lRaw KyRlEa yInnIh NEkDl Ezek. 29:10

lwb׊g_dAow hEnwVs lO;dgI;mIm h$DmDmVv brOj twbrDjVl My#rVxIm


al hDmEhV;b lgrw M$dDa lgr ;hD;b_rDbSoAt al Ezek. 29:11

:h`DnDv MyIoD;brAa bEvEt alw ;hD;b_rDbSoAt

twxrSa JKwtV;b h%DmDmVv MyrVxIm XrRa_tRa yI;tAtnw Ezek. 29:12

h$DmDmVv   NyRyVh`I;t twbrFj`Dm MyrDo JKwtV;b DhyЮrDow tw#;mAvn

MyItyrz`Vw MYywgA;b MyrVxIm_tRa yItOxIpShw hDnDv MyIoD;brAa

p :twxrSaD;b

hnDv MyIoD;brAa X;qIm hIwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k yI;k Ezek. 29:13

:hD;m`Dv wxOpn_rRvSa MyI;mAoDh_NIm My$rVxIm_tRa XE;bqSa

XrRa MDtOa yItObIvShw My$rVxIm twbVv_tRa yI;tVbAvw Ezek. 29:14

:h`DlDpVv hDkDlVmAm MDv wyDhw MDtrwkVm XrRa_lAo sw$rVtAp

dwo aEcnVtIt_alw h$DlDpVv hRyVhI;t twkDlVmA;mAh_NIm Ezek. 29:15

:M`IywgA;b twdr yI;tVlIbVl My$I;tVfAoVmIhw MIywgAh_lAo

ryI;kzAm jDfVbImVl lEarVcy tyEbVl dwo_hyVh`Iy alw Ezek. 29:16

p :h`Iwhy yDnOdSa yInSa yI;k w$odDyw MRhyrSjAa MDtwnVpI;b N$OwDo

dDjRaV;b Nwvar`D;b hYnDv oAbRvw MyrVcRoV;b y#Ihyw Ezek. 29:17

:rOmaEl yAlEa hDwhy_rAbd hDyDh vdOjAl

dyIbToRh lRbD;b_JKRl`Rm rAxardAkwbn M#dDa_NR;b Ezek. 29:18

j$rVqUm var_lD;k r$Ox_lRa hDlOdg hdObSo w%lyEj_tRa

r$OxIm wlyEjVlw wl hyDh_al rDkDcw hDfwrVm PEtD;k_lDkw

s :Dhy`RlDo dAbDo_rRvSa hdObSoDh_lAo

NEtOn yInnIh hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k N#EkDl Ezek. 29:19

;hnOmSh aDcnw MyrVxIm XrRa_tRa lRbD;b_JKRl`Rm rAxardAkwbnIl

:wlyEjVl rDkDc hDtyDhw ;hY·zI;b zAzDbw ;hDlDlVv lAlDvw

XrRa_tRa wl yI;tAtn ;h$D;b dAbDo_rRvSa wtD;lUoVp Ezek. 29:20

s :h`Iwhy yDnOdSa MUan y$Il wcDo rRvSa MyrVxIm

KVlw l$EarVcy tyEbVl NrЮq AjyImVxAa aw#hAh MwyA;b Ezek. 29:21

p :h`Dwhy yInSa_yI;k wodyw MDkwtV;b hRp_NwjVtIp NE;tRa

:rOmaEl yAlEa hDwhy_rAbd yIhyw Ezek. 30:1

hIwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k $D;trAmDaw aEbΊnIh MdDa_NR;b Ezek. 30:2

:MwyAl ;hDh wlyIlyEh

tEo NYnDo Mwy hDwhy`Al Mwy bwrqw MwYy bwrq_y`I;k Ezek. 30:3

:h`RyVh`Iy MIywg

vw$kV;b hDlDjVlAj hDtyDhw My$rVxImV;b brRj hDaDbw Ezek. 30:4

:Dhy`RtOdwsy wsrRhnw ;hYnwmSh wjVqDlw MyrVxImV;b lDlDj lOpnI;b

XrRa yEnVbw bw$kw brRoDh_lDkw dwlw fwpw vw;k Ezek. 30:5

p :wlOpy brRjA;b MD;tIa tyrV;bAh

Nwa׊g dryw My$rVxIm yEkVmOs ЊwlVp`Dnw hYwhy rAmDa hO;k Ezek. 30:6

:h`Iwhy yDnOdSa MUan ;h$Db_wlVpy brRjA;b hGnwVs lO;dgI;mIm ;hDzUo

MyrDo_JKwtV;b wyrDow tw;mAvn twxrSa JKwtV;b w;mAvnw Ezek. 30:7

:hny`RyVh`I;t twbrSjn

wrV;bVvnw My$rVxImV;b vEa_yI;tItV;b hDwhy yInSa_y`I;k wodyw Ezek. 30:8


My$IxA;b ynDpV;lIm MyIkDaVlAm waVxy aw#hAh MwyA;b Ezek. 30:9

MwyV;b MRhDb hDlDjVlAj hDtyDhw jAfR;b vw;k_tRa dyrSjAhVl

s :h`DaD;b hEnIh yI;k My$rVxIm

NwmSh_tRa yI;tA;bVvIhw hIwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k Ezek. 30:10

:l`RbD;b_JKRlRm rAxardAkwbn dAyV;b My$rVxIm

tEjAvVl MyIaDbwm MYywg yExyrDo w;tIa w;mAow awh Ezek. 30:11

XrDaDh_tRa waVlDmw My$rVxIm_lAo MDtwbrAj wqyrEhw XrDaDh


XrDaDh_tRa yI;trAkDmw h$Dbr`Dj MyrOay yI;tAtnw Ezek. 30:12

hDwhy yInSa My$rz_dyV;b ;hDalVmw XrRa yItO;mIvShw MyIor_dyV;b

s :yI;tr`A;b;d

My%Ilw;lg yI;tdAbSaAhw hGwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa_hO;k Ezek. 30:13

al MyrVxIm_Xr`RaEm ayIcnw P$OnIm MyIlyIlTa yI;tA;bVvIhw

:MyrVxIm XrRaV;b hDary yI;tAtnw dwo_hyVh`Iy

yItyIcDow NAoOxV;b vEa yI;tAtnw sw$rVtAp_tRa yItO;mIvShw Ezek. 30:14

:anV;b MyIfDpVv

yI;trVkIhw MyrVxIm zwoDm NyIs_lAo y$ItDmSj yI;tVkApDvw Ezek. 30:15

:an NwmSh_tRa

Ny$Is [ lwjD;t] lyIjD;t lwj My$rVxImV;b vEa yI;tAtnw Ezek. 30:16

:M`Dmwy yrDx POnw AoqD;bIhVl hRyVhI;t anw

yIbVvA;b hΊnEhw wlOpy brRjA;b tRsRb_yIpw NwDa yrwjA;b Ezek. 30:17


twfOm_tRa MDv_yrVbIvV;b MwYyAh JKAcDj sEjnVpAjVt`Ibw Ezek. 30:18

DhyRtwnVbw hΊn$R;sAky NDnDo ayIh ;hDzUo Nwa׊g ;hD;b_tA;bVvnw My$rVxIm

:hnVk`AlEt yIbVvA;b

:h`Dwhy yInSa_y`I;k wodyw MyrVxImV;b MyIfDpVv yItyIcDow Ezek. 30:19


hDoVbIvV;b Nwvar`D;b hYnDv hrVcRo tAjAaV;b y#Ihyw Ezek. 30:20

:rOmaEl yAlEa hDwhy_rAbd hDyDh vdOjAl

MyrVxIm_JKRl`Rm hOorAp Aowrz_tRa MdDa_NR;b Ezek. 30:21

lw;tIj MwcDl tw%aUpr tEtDl hDvV;bUj_al hEnIhw yI;trDbDv

s :br`DjR;b cOpVtIl ;hqzDjVl ;hDvVbDjVl

hOorAp_lRa ynnIh hGwOhy yDnOdSa rAmDa_hO;k NEkDl Ezek. 30:22

hqzSjAh_tRa wy$DtOoOrz_tRa yI;trAb`Dvw My$rVxIm_JKRl`Rm

:wdΥyIm brRjAh_tRa yI;tVlApIhw trD;bVvnAh_tRaw

:twxrSaD;b MItyrzw MIywgA;b MyrVxIm_tRa yItwxIpShw Ezek. 30:23

yI;tAtnw l$RbD;b JKRlRm twoOrz_tRa y#I;tVqŇzIjw Ezek. 30:24

twqSan qAanw h$OorAp twoOrz_tRa yI;trAbDvw wdyV;b yI;brAj_tRa

:wy`DnDpVl lDlDj

twoOrzw l$RbD;b JKRlRm twoOrz_tRa y#I;tVqzSjAhw Ezek. 30:25

dAyV;b yI;brAj yI;tItV;b hGwhy yInSa_y`I;k wody`Vw hnVlOpI;t hOorAp

:MyrVxIm XrRa_lRa ;hDtwa hDfnw l$RbD;b_JKRl`Rm

MDtwa yItyrzw MYywgA;b MyrVxIm_tRa yItwxIpShw Ezek. 30:26

s :h`Dwhy yInSa_y`I;k wodyw twxrSaD;b

vdOjAl dDjRaV;b yIvyIlVvA;b hYnDv hrVcRo tAjAaV;b y#Ihyw Ezek. 31:1

:rOmaEl yAlEa hDwhy_rAbd hDyDh

MyrVxIm_JKRl`Rm hOorAp_lRa rOmTa MdDa_NR;b Ezek. 31:2

:K`RldgVb DtyIm;d yIm_lRa wnwmSh_lRaw

lAxEm vrOjw PDnDo hEpy NwGnDbV;lA;b zrRa rw%vAa hnIh Ezek. 31:3

:w;trA;mAx hDtyDh My$ItObSo NyEbw hDmwq ;hAbgw

JKElOh Dhy#RtOrShn_tRa whVtDmVmOr MwhV;t whw$l;dg MyAm Ezek. 31:4

:hdDcAh yExSo_lD;k lRa h$DjVlIv DhyRtlDoV;t_tRaw ;h$DoDfAm twbyIbVs

hnyR;brI;tw hdDcAh yExSo lO;kIm w$tDmOq aDhVbΊg NE;k_lAo Ezek. 31:5

MyI;br MyA;mIm [wyDtOrap] wtrap hnVkrTaR;tw wy%DtOpAor`As


wyDtOrap tAjAtw My$AmDvAh Pwo_lD;k Њwnnq wyDtOpAoVsI;b Ezek. 31:6

:My`I;br MIywg lO;k w$bVv`Ey w;lIxVbw hdDcAh tAyAj lO;k w$dVl`Dy

wvrDv hDyDh_y`I;k wyDtwyIl;d JKrOaV;b w$ldgV;b PIyץyw Ezek. 31:7

:My`I;br MyAm_lRa

al My#IvwrV;b ~MyIhlTa_NgV;b whUmDmSo_al MyIzrSa Ezek. 31:8

XEo_lD;k wyDtOrapV;k wyDh_al MyInOmrAow wy$DtOpAoVs_lRa Њwmd

:wyVpyV;b wyDlEa hDmd_al My$IhlTa_NgV;b

ЊwhUanqyw wyDtwyIl;d bOrV;b wy$ItyIcSo hRpy Ezek. 31:9

s :My`IhlTaDh NAgV;b rRvSa Nd$Eo_yExSo_lD;k

D;tVhAbΊg rRvSa NAoy hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k N#EkDl Ezek. 31:10

:whVbgV;b wbDbVl Mrw My$ItwbSo NyE;b_lRa w;trA;mAx NE;tyw hDmwqV;b

woVvrV;k w$l hRcSo`Ay wcDo MIywg lyEa dAyV;b whYnV;tRaw Ezek. 31:11


whUvVfy`Aw MIywg yExyrDo Myrz whUtrVkyw Ezek. 31:12

hnrAbDvI;tw wy#DtwyIld wlVpn twyDag_lDkVbw MyrDhRh_lRa

XrDaDh yE;mAo_lD;k w;lIxIm wdryw Xr$DaDh yqyIpSa  lOkV;b wyDtOrap


MyDmDvAh Pwo_lD;k wnV;kVvy w;tVlApAm_lAo Ezek. 31:13

:hdDcAh tAyAj lO;k wYyDh wyDtOrap_lRaw

My#Am_yExSo_lD;k M%DtDmwqVb whV;bgy_al rRvSa NAo&AmVl Ezek. 31:14

wdVmAoy_alw My$ItObSo NyE;b_lRa MD;trA;mAx_tRa wnV;ty_alw

tw%D;mAl wnV;tn MD;lUk_y`I;k MyDm yEtOv_lD;k MDhVbgV;b MRhyElEa

s :rwb ydrwy_lRa MdDa yEnV;b JKwtV;b ty#I;tVjA;t XrRa_lRa

hDlwaVv w;tdr MwyV;b hGwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa_hO;k Ezek. 31:15

waVlD;kyw Dhy$RtwrShn onVmRa`Dw Mw$hV;t_tRa wyDlDo yItE;sI;k yI;tVl%AbTaRh

wyDlDo hdDcAh yExSo_lDkw NwYnDbVl wyDlDo r;dVqAaw MyI;br MyAm


wtOa ydrwhV;b MYywg yI;tVvAorIh w;tVlApAm lw;qIm Ezek. 31:16

tyI;tVjA;t XrRaV;b w%mSjΊnyw rwb ydrwy_tRa hDlwaVv

:My`Dm yEtOv_lD;k NwnDbVl_bwfw rAjVbIm Nd$Eo_yExSo_lD;k

brDj_yElVlAj_lRa hDlwaVv wdry w;tIa M#Eh_MŊg Ezek. 31:17

:M`Iywg JKwtV;b w;lIxVb wbVvy woOrzw

NdEo_yExSoA;b ldOgVbw dwbDkV;b hDkD;k DtyImd yIm_lRa Ezek. 31:18

MyIlrSo JKwtV;b ty#I;tVjA;t XrRa_lRa Nd%Eo_yExSo_tRa D;tdrwhw

MUan h$OnwmSh_lDkw hOorAp awh br$Rj_yElVlAj_tRa bA;kVvI;t

s :h`Iwhy yDnOdSa

dDjRaV;b vdOj rDcDo_ynVvI;b hYnDv hrVcRo yE;tVvI;b yIhy`Aw Ezek. 32:1

:rOmaEl yAlEa hDwhy_rAbd hDyDh vdOjAl

My$rVxIm_JKRl`Rm hOorAp_lAo hnyIq aDc M#dDa_NR;b Ezek. 32:2

My$I;mťyA;b MyInA;tA;k hD;tAaw DtyEmdn MIywg ryIpV;k wy$DlEa D;trAmDaw

:M`DtwrShn sOprI;tw Ky$RlgrV;b MyAm_jAldI;tw Ky#RtwrShnV;b jgD;tw

y$I;tVvr_tRa KyRlDo yI;tVcrDpw hYwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k Ezek. 32:3

:y`ImrRjV;b KwlToRhw MyI;br MyI;mAo lAhVqI;b

KRlyIfSa hdDcAh yEnVp_lAo Xr$DaDb KyI;tVvAfnw Ezek. 32:4

tAyAj KV;mIm yI;tVoA;bVcIhw My$AmDvAh Pwo_lD;k KyRlDo yI;tnA;kVvIhw


twyDagAh yItaE;lImw MyrDh`Rh_lAo KrDcV;b_tRa yI;tAtnw Ezek. 32:5


MyrDh`Rh_lRa KVm;dIm KVtDpDx XrRa yItyqVvIhw Ezek. 32:6

:D;K`R;mIm NwaVlD;my MyqIpSaw

MRhyEbVkO;k_tRa yI;tr;dVqIhw My$AmDv KVtw;bAkVb yItyE;sIkw Ezek. 32:7

:wrwa ryIay_al Ajryw wn$R;sAkSa NDnDoR;b vRmRv

yI;tAtnw KyRlDo Mry;dVqAa My$AmDvA;b rwa yrwaVm_lD;k Ezek. 32:8

:h`Iwhy yDnOdSa MUan $KVxrAa_l`Ao JKRvOj

KrVbIv yIayIbShA;b MyI;br MyI;mAo bEl y$I;tVsAoVkIhw Ezek. 32:9

:M`D;tVody_al rRvSa twxrSa_lAo MYywgA;b

wrSoVcy MRhyEkVlAmw My#I;br MyI;mAo Ky%RlDo yItw;mIvShw Ezek. 32:10

MyIogrIl wdrDjw MRhynVp_lAo yI;brAj yIpVpwoV;b rAo$Ac KyRlDo

s :K`R;tVlApAm MwyV;b w$vVpnVl vyIa

lRbD;b_JKRl`Rm brRj hIwhy yDnOdSa rAmDa hO;k yI;k Ezek. 32:11


MIywg yExyrDo KYnwmSh lyIpAa Myrw;bg twbrAjV;b Ezek. 32:12

:;h`DnwmSh_lD;k dAmVvnw My$rVxIm Nwa׊g_tRa Њwdd`Dvw MD;lU;k

MyI;br MyAm lAoEm ;h$D;tVmRhV;b_lD;k_tRa yI;tdAbSa`Ahw Ezek. 32:13

:M`EjDldIt al hDmEhV;b twsrApw dw$o MdDa_lgr MEjDldIt alw

JKyIlwa NRmRvA;k MDtwrShnw M$RhyEmy`Em AoyqVvAa zDa Ezek. 32:14

:h`Iwhy yDnOdSa MUan

XrRa h#D;mAvnw hDmDmVv My%rVxIm XrRa_tRa yI;tItV;b Ezek. 32:15

:h`Dwhy yInSa_y`I;k wodyw ;hDb yEbVvwy_lD;k_tRa yItw;kAhV;b ;h$DalV;mIm

;hDtwa hΊnEnwqV;t MIywgAh twnV;b DhwYnnwqw ayIh hDnyIq Ezek. 32:16

yDnOdSa MUan ;h$Dtwa hΊnEnwqV;t ;hnwmSh_lD;k_lAow MyrVxIm_lAo

p :h`Iwhy

vdOjAl rDcDo hDvImSjA;b hYnDv hrVcRo yE;tVvI;b yIhy`Aw Ezek. 32:17

:rOmaEl yAlEa hDwhy_rAbd hDyDh

whdrwhw MyrVxIm NwmSh_lAo hEhn MdDa_NR;b Ezek. 32:18

ydrwy_tRa twyI;tVjA;t XrRa_lRa Mr;dAa MIywg twnVbw ;hDtwa


:My`IlrSo_tRa hDbV;kVvDhw hdr D;tVmDon yI;mIm Ezek. 32:19

wkVvDm hn$D;tn brRj wlOpy brRj_yElVlAj JKwtV;b Ezek. 32:20

:Dhy`RnwmSh_lDkw ;hDtwa

wyrzOo_tRa lwaVv JKw;tIm Myrw;bg yElEa wl_wrV;bdy Ezek. 32:21

:br`Dj_yElVlAj MyIlrSoDh wbVkDv wdr`Dy

MD;lU;k wyDtOrVbIq wyDtwby`IbVs ;h$DlDhVq_lDkw rwvAa MDv Ezek. 32:22

:br`DjR;b MyIlVpOnAh My$IlDlSj

;h$DlDhVq yIhyw rw$b_yEtV;kryV;b DhyRtOrVbIq wnV;tn rRvSa Ezek. 32:23

wnVtn_rRvSa br$RjA;b MyIlVpOn MyIlDlSj MD;lU;k ;hDtrUbVq twbyIbVs

:My`IyAj XrRaV;b tyI;tIj

MD;lU;k ;hDtrUbVq twbyIbVs ;hYnwmSh_lDkw MDlyEo MDv Ezek. 32:24

XrRa_lRa MyIlrSo wdry_rRva br%RjA;b MyIlVpOnAh MyIlDlSj

MDtD;mIlVk waVcyw MyYyAj XrRaV;b MDtyI;tIj wnVtn rRvSa twGyI;tVjA;t

:rwb ydrwy_tRa

;hYnwmSh_lDkV;b ;hDl bD;kVvIm wnVtn MyIlDlSj JKwtV;b Ezek. 32:25

NA;tn_y`I;k br&Rj_yElVlAj MyIlrSo MD;lU;k DhRtOrVbIq wyDtwby`IbVs

JKwtV;b rw$b ydrwy_tRa MDtD;mIlVk waVcyw MyGyAj XrRaV;b M%DtyI;tIj

:N`D;tn MyIlDlSj

wyDtwby`IbVs ;hYnwmSh_lDkw  lAbU;t JKRvRm MDv Ezek. 32:26

MDtyI;tIj wnVtn_y`I;k br$Rj yElVlUjVm MyIlrSo MD;lU;k DhyRtwrVbIq

:My`IyAj XrRaV;b

rRvSa MyIlrSoEm MyIlVpOn My$rw;bg_tRa ЊwbV;kVvy alw Ezek. 32:27

tAjA;t M%DtwbrAj_tRa wnV;tyw MD;tVmAjVlIm_y`ElVkI;b lwaVv_wdry

Myrw;bg tyI;tIj_y`I;k M$DtwmVxAo_lAo MDtOnOwSo yIhV;tw M#RhyEvar

:My`IyAj XrRaV;b

bA;kVvItw rAbDvI;t MyIlrSo JKwtV;b h#D;tAaw Ezek. 32:28


wnV;tn_rRvSa Dhy$RayIcn_lDkw DhyRkDlVm Mw#dTa hD;mDv Ezek. 32:29

wbD;kVvy MyIlrSo_tRa hD;mEh brDj_yElVlAj_tRa MDtrwbgIb

:rwb ydrOy_tRaw

wdry_rRvSa yInOd`Ix_lDkw MD;lU;k NwpDx yEkyIsn hD;mDv Ezek. 32:30

MyIlrSo wbV;kVvyw My$Ivw;b MDtrwbgIm MDtyI;tIjV;b My#IlDlSj_tRa

:rwb ydrwy_tRa MDtD;mIlVk waVcyw br$Rj_yElVlAj_tRa

hOnwmSh_lD;k_lAo MAjnw h$OorAp hRary MDtwa Ezek. 32:31

:h`Iwhy yDnOdSa MUan w$lyEj_lDkw hOorAp brRj_yElVlAj [wnwmSh]

MyIyAj XrRaV;b [yItyI;tIj] wtyI;tIj_tRa yI;tAtn_y`I;k Ezek. 32:32

h$OnwmSh_lDkw hOorAp br#Rj_yElVlAj_tRa My%IlrSo JKwtV;b bA;kVvUhw

p :h`Iwhy yDnOdSa MUan


Lesson Outline


Oracles against foreign nations chs. 2532


A. Oracles against Judah's closest neighbors ch. 25

1. Judgment on Ammon 25:1-7

2. Judgment on Moab 25:8-11

3. Judgment on Edom 25:12-14

4. Judgment on Philistia 25:15-17


B. Judgment on Tyre 26:128:19

1. Judgment by Babylonia and other enemies ch. 26

2. A funeral dirge over Tyre ch. 27

3. A judgment speech against the ruler of Tyre 28:1-10

4. A funeral dirge for the king of Tyre 28:11-19


C. Judgment on Sidon 28:20-24


D. Israel's restoration from the nations 28:25-26


E. Judgment on Egypt chs. 2932

1. An introductory prophecy of judgment on Egypt 29:1-16

2. The consummation of Egypt's judgment 29:17-21

3. The destruction of Egypt and her allies 30:1-19

4. Pharaoh's broken arms 30:20-26

5. Egypt's fall compared to Assyria's fall ch. 31

6. A funeral dirge for Egypt 32:1-16

7. A summary lament over Egypt 32:17-32


McKay's Notes


This section turns from prophecies concerning the downfall and God's wrath upon Judah, to God's wrath being poured out on the enemies of Judah; specifically, Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia, Tyre, Sidon and Egypt. This is consistent with similar lists of prophecies against foreign nations found in Isaiah (13:1-23:18), Jeremiah (46:1-51:64) and Amos (1:3-2:3). Ezekiel prophesizes the outpouring of God's wrath against all the nations condemned in other prophecies, except Babylon and Damascus.


The exclusion of Babylon is most interesting, and can be explained in one of several ways. First, one school of thought holds that Babylon was so overwhelmingly powerful during Ezekiel's time that any mention of its fall would be seen as ludicrous. The second is that God was using Babylon at the time as a tool to punish Judah, and he was reluctant to mention it in fear of bringing even harsher retribution against the land. Ezekiel at the time was one of the captives in Babylon, and may have been unable or unwilling to risk his own safety by writing so boldly (though Jeremiah and Daniel did exactly that, and were treated when honor by the Babylonians even after prophesizing of their destruction). To bolster this last argument, there is some thought that later section dealing with Gog/Magog were in fact cryptic references to Babylon itself.


(from Dr. Constable's notes)


This, the second of three major sections of the book of Ezekiel, neatly separates a long section detailing Judah's downfall (ch 1-24) from a later section prophesizing its restoration (ch 33-48).


There are seven separate messages within this section, four of which are found in ch 25 alone; the prophecies against Ammon (1-7), Moab (8-11), Edom (14-14), and Philistia (15-17). The most significant point is the repeated use of the word "Aha!" (j%DaRh), emphasizing that, while God may choose to discipline His own people and nation, He will not tolerate any foreign nation mocking them or attempting to take advantage of them as a result. Five of the seven named nations had actively participated in conspiracies against Judah, but all had rejoiced over its fall to the Babylonians. One of the points being made is that God will judge all nations and peoples, not just Israel/Judah.


Another significant point being made is about the nature of these nations, all were filled with and ungodly sense of pride and all were engaged in various forms of idolatry.


IVP-New Bible Commentary


25:1-17 Prophecies against neighbouring nations

            This section begins a series of oracles against the foreign nations surrounding Israel (chs. 25-32). Egypt and Tyre receive most attention, but this oracle concentrates on Judah's immediate neighbours: Ammon, Moab, Edom, and Philistia. These nations had apparently regarded the downfall of the people of Israel with delight (Ammon) and derision (Moab). They had even taken the opportunity to execute revenge on Judah (Edom and Philistia). Ezekiel's oracle warns that retribution will come.

            The oracle begins with Ammon, which lay to the east of Israel, and then moves in a clockwise direction to Moab, Edom and Philistia.

            It is easy to condemn these neighbours of Israel for their attitudes to her. Yet these attitudes can be ours too when trouble befalls one of our neighbours. Meanwhile God is the God of the whole earth and is ultimately in control of the fate of nations, as of individuals.

            Ammon. Because the Ammonites gloated over the destruction of Israel and Judah, they will be taken over and plundered by the peoples from the East (1-5). Because they rejoiced maliciously over Israel, they will be ruined (6-7).

            Moab. Because Moab viewed Judah with contempt, they will be taken over by the people from the East (8-11).

            Edom. Because Edom took revenge on Judah, they will suffer devastation at the hands of Israel.

            Philistia. Because the Philistines took revenge on Judah, the Kerethites and the rest of the coastal peoples will be destroyed.

            Notes. 4 'People of the East'nomadic desert tribes.

5 'Rabbah'Capital of Ammon (cf. 21:20).

8 'Seir'Another name for Edom.

16 'Kerethites'A people closely linked with the Philistines.


26:1-28:19 Prophecies against Tyre

            In geographical terms, Tyre was minute. In economic terms, however, she was highly significant, and was thus an important force in the politics of the ancient Middle East.

            The ancient city of Tyre was an important seaport for the area which is now southern Lebanon. (Its site lies approximately midway between Beirut to the north and Haifa to the south.) The city had two harbours, one of which was on an island which lay just off the coast. In Ezekiel there are several references to Tyre's close links with the sea. Both her prowess and her predicted downfall are described using marine allusions. A substantial part of Tyre's strength lay in her seafaring ability. [p. 732]       Tyre's wealth stemmed from her trading. Her merchants travelled extensively throughout the ancient world and dealt in a very extensive range of goods. Her people were famous for their business skills. These skills in turn had led to prosperity.

            Tyre has a long and significant history. The city is mentioned in Egyptian Execration Texts of around 1850 BC. According to Herodotus, alphabetic writing was introduced to Greece by the Phoenicians who came with Cadmus, king of Tyre. The citystate also founded the colony of Carthage around 825815 BC.

            Tyre's relations with Israel often had some economic factor. Hiram I supplied David with materials for building the palace of Jerusalem (2 Sa. 5:11; 1 Ch. 14:1). He also supplied Solomon with materials for the temple and concluded a treaty with him. Just over a century later, king Ahab arranged to marry Jezebel, a daughter of the king of Tyre (1 Ki. 16:31). Through Jezebel the worship of the Tyrian godBaal Melqartwas introduced into Israel.

            Prior to the time of Ezekiel, Tyre had enjoyed a period of prosperity. However, Ezekiel, Jeremiah (25:22; 27:1-11) and Zechariah (9:2-7) all prophesied Tyre's suppression by the Babylonians. Nebuchadnezzar's siege of Tyre (from c. 587- c. 574 BC) was apparently a hard campaign (Ezk. 29:18). The city eventually acknowledged Babylonian domination.

            The oracles against Tyre and Egypt are instructive guides as to the nature of national pride. Most people maintain some element of pride in and support for the advance of their nation. In the case of Tyre we see the arrogant confidence of selfmade economic success. The wealth that she had acquired was to her the sign that she was superior. She was prepared to support corrupt business practices in order to maintain that superiority. Israel's demise was simply seen as a business opportunity.

            Tyre was condemned for these attitudes, which are still prevalent in society today. We must not let the material success of our nation become its sole criterion of achievement.


26:1-21 Selfsatisfaction denounced

In this oracle Tyre is rebuked for seeing the fall of Jerusalem as merely an event which will enhance her own prosperity. The Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar would lay siege against her and bring about her downfall. Delight at the downfall of others is an emotion that Christians, and others, need to deal with as it is very pervasive, but not readily acknowledged.

            1-21 The word of God to Ezekiel is: 'Tyre has said that the ruin of Jerusalem will ensure her own prosperity' (1-2). Therefore he is to proclaim: 'Many nations will pillage you and your settlements, Tyre. Then they will know that I am the Lord (3-6). Nebuchadnezzar will ravage your mainland and lay siege against you. You will never be rebuilt (7-14). The coastal tribes will be appalled at your downfall and will lament your collapse (15-18). You will be dragged down to the pit. You will not return' (19-21).

            Notes. 1 'The eleventh year'i.e. 587(6 BC.

2 Tyre saw the fall of Jerusalem as merely a business opportunity. On account of its geographical location the land of Palestine was the hub of numerous traderoutes that linked Africa with Eurasia.

3-5 Many of the images relating to Tyre refer to her maritime situation.

6 'Her settlements on the mainland'Tyre had extended her control to areas far beyond the island and the mainland harbour.

7-14 Nebuchadnezzar is now mentioned by name for the first time in Ezekiel. His siege of Tyre is reported to have lasted thirteen years. This campaign apparently proved to be a difficult one even for the Babylonians (see 29:18). The citystate acquiesced and recognized Babylonian control.

15 'The coastlands'other Mediterranean citystates who probably were tradingpartners of Tyre.

19 The picture here is of the island sinking beneath the waves.

20 'I will bring you down... to the pit'. The 'pit' and the earth below refer to the grave or to Sheol i.e. the domain of death.


27:1-36 A lament

This oracle is given as a lament. Here Tyre is likened to a marvellouslywrought merchant ship. The suppliers of her timbers and her merchandise are her tradingpartners. The extensive list of countries and products gives us a clear picture of why Tyre was famous for trading. Her links spread throughout most of the Mediterranean, North Africa, Asia Minor, and the Middle East. She was able to employ foreigners in both industry and defence. Yet this ship of state was to be sunk i.e. Tyre was to be overthrown.

            When an oldestablished, major manufacturer goes bankrupt and closes its doors not only its own employees are made redundant but often thousands more in satellite industries, local suppliers and services. Recession and economic collapse are some of the modern punishments a state may endure.

            1-36 Ezekiel is instructed to proclaim to Tyre: 'You gloried in your beauty (3-4). You were constructed from the finest materials (5-7). You employed many nations to build, operate, and defend you (8-11). You had many important trading partners, near and far, and your merchandise was of the highest quality and widest range (12-25). But you will lose it all on [p. 733] the day of your shipwreck (26-27). Your neighbours and trading partners will be appalled (28-36). You will be no more' (36).

            Notes. 3 'I am perfect in beauty'Tyre's great wealth had brought her much adornment, in which she had great pride (cf. 28:12).

5-6 The timbers used were among the finest. 'Senir'the Amorite term for Hermon (cf. Dt. 3:9).

7 'Elishah'probably refers to Cyprus.

8 'Sidon and Arvad'these two cities lay to the north of Tyre.

9 'Gebal'the seaport of Byblos, an important Phoenician port. The movement of labour to Tyre was another sign of her economic strength.

10 'Put'Libya. The three nations mentioned here are widely separated. They are listed to show how Tyre could draw mercenaries from all over the ancient worldwhether Libya (Put) in the west, Lydia in the north or Persia in the east.

11 Arvad also supplied draftsmen (8). 'Helech... Gammad'both are of uncertain geographical origin. Helech may be in the region of Cilicia, and Gammad may lie in Cappadocia. (Both areas are in eastern Asia Minor.)

12 The list of Tyre's tradingpartners in approximate geographical order, running from Tarshish in the western Mediterranean to the Arabian desert and Mesopotamia.

16 'Aram'it may be better to read 'Edom' here.

23 'Eden'not the garden of Eden; the two forms of 'Eden' are spelled differently in Hebrew. The Eden mentioned here lies in Mesopotamia.

26 The 'east wind' may refer not just to a sea storm (cf. Ps. 48:7) but also to where the threat to Tyre lay: Babylon was east of Tyre.

30-31 Seven traditional signs of mourning are listed here: loud lamentation, putting earth on the head, rolling in ashes or dust, shaving the head, putting on sackcloth, intense weeping and chanting a lament.


28:1-10 Against arrogance

The achievement of economic wealth had brought with it a sense of pride. The process is summed up in v 5great skill in trading had led to great wealth, and great wealth had led to pride. The king of Tyre is depicted as believing he is as wise as a god. The prophecy warns that the penalty for such arrogance would be both humiliating and final. Other examples of such pride and subsequent fall are easy to find throughout history and today.

            1-10 Ezekiel must proclaim to the king of Tyre: 'You think you are a god, but you are not (1-2). Your shrewdness and business acumen have brought you great economic reward (3-5a), which in turn has made you conceited (5b). Because of your conceit, you will die a humiliating death at the hands of foreigners. When they confront you, you will just be a mortal, not a god' (7-10).     Notes.

2 'In the heart of the seas'part of Tyre consisted of an island (see above).

3 'Daniel'see note on 14:14, 20.

7 'Foreigners... the most ruthless of nations'a reference to the Babylonians.

10 The Tyrians practised circumcision and hence to die 'the death of the uncircumcised' would have been considered a humiliation.


28:11-19 Expulsion from 'paradise'

This lament depicts the rise and fall of the king of Tyre, and hence the rise and fall of the citystate itself. The imagery is strongly reminiscent of the Garden of Eden narrative. However there is no attempt to parallel the Genesis account closely. As is often the case in Ezekiel, metaphors are freely mixed, altered and adapted to suit the language of the prophecy. The poetic language serves to highlight the extent of the fall that Tyre experienced; it was like an expulsion from paradise.

            11-19 The lament to the king of Tyre is: 'You were once the exemplar of wisdom and beauty (12), dwelling in a paradise, adorned with splendid jewels (13-14) and exhibiting blameless behaviour (15). Yet your widespread commercial activities led to oppression. Your splendour made you conceited and corrupted your thinking. Your many dishonest trading practices led to desecration of the sanctuaries. Thus you have been expelled from your paradise and laid low (16-18). Onlookers are appalled by you' (19).

            Notes. 13 The precious stones listed here have been taken to allude to the high priest's robe (Ex. 28:17-20), but pagan deities were sometimes clothed in jewelcovered garments too. The emphasis here is simply on the richness of the king (and of Tyre).

14-16 The exact significance of the cherub is unclear and dependent on which textual reading is followed. Either (as NIV) the king of Tyre was elevated to the status of a cherub, or he had a cherub appointed as his guardian. Both renderings point to his elevated status. 'the fiery stones'lit. 'stones of fire'; possibly a reference to the precious stones mentioned in v 13. Alternatively, it may be a description of some radiant or glowing feature found on the mountain of God.

15 'Blameless'again an allusion to the Eden account.

18-19 Here the subject changes from the king to the city of Tyre.


28:20-26 Prophecy against Sidon: 'Know the Lord'

            Sidon was a neighbour of Tyre. It would suffer due punishment as well. One notable feature of this short oracle is the frequency of the phrase then they will know that I am the LORD. Furthermore the prophecy holds the promise of [p. 734] restoration for the people of God (25-26), a theme which would receive greater emphasis later.

            20-26 Ezekiel is to proclaim to Sidon: 'I am against you Sidonbut I will be glorified through you. When I execute judgment on you they will know that I am the Lord (22). When I afflict you they will know that I am the Lord (23). When Israel no longer has malicious neighbours they will know that I am the Lord (24). When I gather Israel from the peoples I shall show myself holy to the nations. Israel shall dwell in safety on the land, and they will know that I am the Lord their God' (25-26).

            Note. 25 'My servant Jacob'cf. 37:25.


29:1-32:32 The Egyptian oracles

            The book of Ezekiel contains a total of seven oracles against Egyptmore than any other country. The question arises as to why a Judaean prophet resident in Babylonia should be bothered with a country several hundred kilometres away. The answer becomes clear when we look at the history of the period and the chronology of the oracles.

            Egypt in Ezekiel's time was a superpower in slow decline. At the height of power her sphere of influence had extended the whole way up the eastern Mediterranean, embracing Palestine and what is now Lebanon and western Syria. When the Babylonians replaced the Assyrians as the dominant force in MiddleEastern military politics, Egypt allied herself with the Assyrians in order to stop the advance of the Babylonians. The result was a complex powerstruggle, and the smaller states in the regionsuch as Jerusalem/Judahhad to choose their friends carefully.

            The chronology of Egypt and Babylonia's interactions up to and during Ezekiel's oracles is as follows:

            605The Babylonians defeat the Egyptian forces at Carchemish (cf. Je. 46:2) and then press south (Carchemish was in NW Syria). Skirmishing ensues.

            601Babylonian and Egyptian forces clash again. There are heavy losses on both sides.

            597Nebuchadnezzar subdues Jerusalem. Egypt stays neutral. Zedekiah is placed on the throne as vassal king by Nebuchadnezzar.

            589Judah under Zedekiah is in open rebellion against the Babylonians.

            588 (Jan.)The Babylonians advance to besiege Jerusalem.

            588The siege is lifted temporarily as the Babylonians redirect their efforts against the Egyptian relief forces (Zedekiah had asked the Egyptians for help). However the Egyptians are soon repulsed, and the Babylonians return to besiege the city.    587 (Jul.)Jerusalem's walls are breached. The city and temple are burnt. The state of Judah comes to an end. The country is in ruins.

            The Egyptian oracles in Ezekiel are unusual in that all but one of them are dated. Nearly half of the 13 dates given in the book are to be found in the Egyptian section. When arranged in chronological order, the oracles date as follows:


            587 (Jan.)29:1-16;

            587 (Apr.)30:20-26;

            587 (Jun.)31:1-18;


            585 (Mar.)32:1-16;

            571 (Apr.)29:17-21.

            The oracle in 30:1-19 is undated but its content is similar to the others.


            Like Tyre, Egypt had much national pride. If Tyre was 'new money', then Egypt was 'old money'. Her pride lay in that which she had inherited and seemingly would keep for ever. She was a vast country with considerable resources (especially the Nile). She had a marvellous imperial history, a sizeable army, and widespread political influence throughout the Middle East. Yet her confidence in her glorious past was misplaced. Her fate was to be humbled. Likewise, in this age, we should not let memories of past national glories (actual or otherwise) distort our perception of a nation's true needs. It is easy to feel confident that problems and disasters which occur to others can never happen to us. This kind of complacency is never realistic.


29:1-16 Egypt: decline and fall

When we compare the dates of the oracles with the events of the time, we find that the oracles were delivered against a general backdrop of Judah's oscillation between Egyptian and Babylonian domination. The state of Judah had allied itself, willingly or otherwise, with one or other of those great military powers during the last twenty years before the cataclysmic events of 588-87 BC.

            Ezekiel's series of oracles against Egypt begins during Jerusalem's darkest hour. Egypt's manoeuvres had failed to break the Babylonian siege. Ezekiel had already predicted the downfall of the city. He now had grim news for her wouldbe saviour. The overall thrust of his oracles was that Egypt would ultimately fall to the Babylonians and that it would cease to be the great nation it once was.

            Jerusalem had already been under siege for a year. There had been a brief respite when the Babylonians were temporarily diverted by an unsuccessful Egyptian assault. Ezekiel's oracle reflects some of the bitterness that must have been felt in Jerusalem when it became clear that Egypt's rescue had failed: Egypt was a staff of reed (6); and would no longer be a source of confidence for the people of Israel (16). Trust placed in military or economic power is always, in the long run, trust misplaced. [p. 735]           The oracle means that Egypt would suffer defeat and destruction. The nation would recover but never get back to its former strength (14-15).

            1-16 The word of the Lord to Pharaoh is: 'Because of your arrogance, Pharaoh, you will be laid low. Then all Egypt will know that I am the Lord (3-6). Because you proved an unreliable help to Israel, Egypt will be ravaged by war. Then they will know that I am the Lord (6-8). Because of your arrogance, Egypt will be desolated, and Egyptians dispersed (9-12). Yet after a while the Egyptians will return to Upper Egypt, but their kingdom will remain a minor one. Egypt will be a reminder to Israel. Then they will know that I am the Lord' (13-16).

            Notes. 1 The date was January 587 BC.

3 'Great monster'a crocodile or perhaps a creature like the 'Leviathan' (cf. Is. 27:1).

6-7 'Staff of reed'cf. Is. 36:6. Just as a reed staff would break and hurt anyone who tried to lean on it for support, so Egypt's wouldbe support for Jerusalem had failed, adding to the despair of the city.

10 'From Migdol to Aswan'an expression implying the whole of the land: (from north to south). 'Cush'the country lying to the south of Egypt (Ethiopia).


29:17-21 Nebuchadnezzar's reward

The date of this oracle (April 571) makes it the latest of the Egyptian oracles. It links these oracles with those against Tyre.

            17-20 The Lord tells Ezekiel: 'Nebuchadnezzar had a hard campaign against Tyrewith no reward' (18). Therefore he is to proclaim: 'Egypt will provide the rewards for Nebuchadnezzar. He will plunder it to pay his army. I have given him Egypt as a reward for what he has done.

            'I will restore strength to Israel, and will open your (Ezekiel's) mouth. Then they will know that I am the Lord' (21).

            Notes. 18 'Every head was rubbed bare'the soldiers' uniforms had chafed on their wearers (a common problem even today).

21 'A horn'the symbol of strength. The people of Israel would regain strength. 'open your mouth'Ezekiel's muteness would be removed (cf. 3:26; 33:22).


30:1-19 A dark day for Egypt

This oracle is undated, but its theme is similar to the other oracles from 587 BC: Egypt and her allies will fall at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar.

            2-9 War will come to Egypt. She and her neighbours and allies will be laid desolate.

10-12 Egypt's military might will be destroyed by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar. The land will be devastated.

13-19 The nation will be leaderless. Its idols will be destroyed, and its cities will be taken by storm.

            Notes. 5 The countries and people mentioned here were all allies of Egypt. 'Cush'a region south of Egypt. 'Put'Libya; 'people of the covenant land'probably Jewish mercenaries who had settled in Egypt.

6 'Migdol to Aswan'cf. 29:10.

15-18 The list of Egyptian cities and regions mentioned here emphasizes the widespread nature of the destruction.


30:20-26 Pharaoh's broken arms

By the time of this oracle(April 587)the inhabitants of Jerusalem would have been besieged by the Babylonians for over a year. Any hopes that Egypt might rescue the city by a second strike against Nebuchadnezzar are finally countered in this oracle. The Egyptians had already been repulsed in 588 (I have broken the arm of Pharaoh v 21), and would suffer further defeats (I will break both his [Pharaoh's] arms v 22).

            20-26 Ezekiel is told: 'Pharaoh's power has already been reduced (21). It will be reduced further. Egyptians will suffer exile/dispersion. Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians will grow more powerful even as Egypt crumbles. Then they will know that I am the LORD (22-25). When the Egyptians are scattered, they will then know that I am the LORD' (26).

            Note. 26 'I will disperse the Egyptians among the nations'this verse could be seen as depicting the scattering of the Egyptian expeditionary forces upon defeat, rather than a breakup of the nation.


31:1-18 The lesson of the felled cedar for Egypt

The glory of Egypt and the extent of her downfall is illustrated by the allegory of a majestic cedar which was chopped down.

            1-18 Ezekiel is told to proclaim to Egypt: 'Your greatness may be compared to that of a magnificent cedar (2-3). This cedar had an abundant source of water (3-4). It towered above its peers, and spread over a wide area (5). They relied on it for protection and shelter (6). It had great splendour (7). It had no equals (8). It was the envy of the rest (9). Because it stood out above the others and was proud of doing so, it was handed over to a ruler to be dealt with (10-11). It was cut down. Those who relied on it left it (12). No others will acquire its greatness (14). The day of its destruction was a black day for many (15-16). Those who sought its protection met a similar end (17). You and your military might will be felled likewise' (18).

            Notes. 3 'Consider Assyria'a slight textual emendation would alter the reference to Assyria to that of a cypress, as in 'Consider a cypress, a cedar in Lebanon'. The alteration [p. 736] makes the allegory more direct, though the general sense remains the same.

10 It was pride which led to the downfall for the cedarand by implication Egypt.

12 'The most ruthless of nations'a phrase used before (30:11) for the Babylonians.

18 'You will lie among the uncircumcised, with those killed by the sword'. As the Egyptians practised circumcision and laid great emphasis on proper burial rites, this prediction would have been doubly abhorrent to them.


32:1-16 Lament for Pharaoh

Egypt is again warned of her overthrow by the Babylonians.

            1-16 The lament to Pharaoh is: 'You are like a great sea beast who will be netted and left to rot on the land (2-4). Many will feed off your remains (4-6). There will be darkness over the land when this happens (7-8). Many nations will be appalled at the event (9-10). The Lord says: ''The Babylonian war machine will overthrow you (11-12). Egypt will be desolated'' ' (13-15).

            Note. 2 'A monster'cf. 29:3-5 where similar imagery is used.


32:17-32 Egypt's descent to the domain of death

This lament expands on two themes which had already been mentioned in the oracles: (1) Egypt will lie in its death alongside other nations 'killed' in battle, and (2) she will share her fate with the uncircumcised. (cf. 31:18).

            Ezekiel uses poetic imagery in his description of Egypt in her state of death. She is depicted as lying in a land surrounded by the wargraves of other deceased nations. The imagery is not to be seen as a description of the afterlife in theological terms. It was a useful way of conveying the degradation of Egypt's condition.

            17-32 Ezekiel is told to lament for Egypt as she descends to the domain of death. She will join the uncircumcised. Others are there already: Assyria (22-23); Elam (24-25); Meshech and Tubal (26-27); Edom (29); Princes of the North (30); Sidonians (30). Pharaoh and his hordes will join them (28, 32).

            All this has a surprisingly 'modern' ring to it; many regimes, great and small, have foundered in the last century for instance. Yet a study of history shows that this is the normal flux in which nations rise and fall. The 'flat field' and secure existence that we hopefully regard as normal is an unfulfilled hope. There is eternal security in the Lord, but apart from that security is an illusion.

            Notes. 24 'Elam'a country to the east of Babylon.

26 'Meshech and Tubal'countries from Asia Minor (cf. 27:13).

27 'Swords placed under their heads'their burial lacked military honours. They had just a basic wargrave.





IVP-Old Testament Commentary


25:1. oracles against foreign nations. See comment on Jeremiah 46:1.

25:2. Ammonites in early sixth century. Although Ammon felt free to taunt Jerusalem over its siege and destruction (see Ezek 21:28), Nebuchadnezzar did eventually turn his forces against this Transjordanian kingdom. According to Herodotus, the campaign against Ammon occurred in 582 B.C. and resulted in widespread devastation of the area. Whether there was a significant deportation of its population has now come into question because of the discovery of seal impressions dating to the Persian period. They indicate a continuity of the Ammonite culture and political existence as late as the fourth century B.C. See the comment on Jeremiah 49:2.

25:4. people of the East. As in Jeremiah 49:28, this nomadic group is associated with the peoples of the Midianite desert region (see Judg 6:3). Their caravans carried goods from the various states of Transjordanian and Palestine, and they were a target of invading armies (Is 11:14). In this case, however, these tribal people will now inhabit the lands of the Ammonites. This is reminiscent of the Egyptian Visions of Neferti, which also mentions "desert herders" settling in formerly populated areas.

25:4. fruit and milk. The standard benediction is that one should enjoy the fruit of one's own labors/vineyards (Ps 128:2; Is 3:10). In this case, however, what has been worked for will become the property of invaders (compare Ezek 23:29). Both agricultural and herding products will be confiscated and the full range of the economy shattered.

25:5. Rabbah. See comments on Jeremiah 49:2 and Ezekiel 21:1820.




Oracle Concerning Moab


25:8. Moab in the early sixth century. Moab was among the states represented at Zedekiah's strategy meeting in 597 B.C. (Jer 27:3). Although it apparently survived and served as a place of refuge for Judeans fleeing Nebuchadnezzar's destruction of Jerusalem in 587, its role as a potential troublemaker in the region was not forgotten. Josephus records a later campaign by the Babylonian king in 582581 to reduce both Ammon and Moab. There is not sufficient evidence to demonstrate how effective this campaign actually was, but, like Ammon, the nation of Moab probably survived to become a part of the Persian empire at the end of the sixth century.

25:9. towns. Each of these towns were part of Moab's western line of defense. Beth Jeshimoth (Tell' Azeimeh) lies in the Shittim Valley north of the Dead Sea. Baal Meon, mentioned in the Mesha Stele, is generally identified with Khirbet Ma'in, four miles southwest of Madaba and thirteen miles southeast of Beth Jeshimoth. Kiriathaim is also listed in the Mesha Stele and presumably is located on the Moabite Plateau (Josh 13:19). It has been identified with several sites, including el-Qereiyat and Jalul, but there is no consensus on its location.




Oracle Concerning Edom


25:12. Edom in the early sixth century. Edom apparently stayed neutral or pro-Babylonian (Ps 137:7) during the conflicts that led to the destruction of Jerusalem. Jeremiah 40:11 indicates that Edom did accept Judean refugees after 587 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar apparently did not extend his Transjordanian campaign of 582 as far as Edom, but his successor, Nabonidus recorded in his Chronicle a siege of the Edomite city of Bozrah in 552 B.C. Archaeological excavations at Buseira and at Tell el-Kheleifeh indicate destruction levels during this period followed by a quick rebuilding and a resumption of economic activity along the southern range of the King's Highway.

25:13. Teman and Dedan. For descriptions of these cities see comments on Jeremiah 49:7 and 49:8.




Oracle Concerning Philistia


25:15. Philistia in the early sixth century. The omission of the cities of Philistia from the list of states represented at Zedekiah's meeting in 597 (Jer 27:3) suggests that this area was firmly in the control of the Babylonians at that time. This region had been badly weakened by the late-seventh-century campaigns of Pharaoh Psammeticus I as Assyrian control waned there (see Jer 25:20; Zeph 2:4). The sons of the king of Ashkelon are recorded in Babylonian ration lists dating to 592, indicating their hostage status. When the Philistine states joined in the Judean revolt of 588, Nebuchadnezzar deported them and apparently settled them near Nippur. By the Persian period, little of the indigenous Philistine population remained in Philistia.

25:16. Kerethites. Ezekiel creates a poetic parallelism between Philistines and Kerethites, while it is still unclear whether these two peoples are actually related ethnically or historically. The Kerethites are most often associated with the island of Crete, and it would appear these people became mercenaries shortly after their migration to the southern coast of Palestine near Gaza (see 1 Sam 30:14; 2 Sam 8:18).




Lament and Oracles Concerning Tyre


26:3. Tyre in the early sixth century. After Egypt's defeat in 605 B.C., Tyre was the main foe of Babylon in western Asia. It was the leading city in Phoenicia and renowned for its maritime trade. Standing out from the coast approximately six hundred yards from the mainland, the island city of Tyre and its harbor were secure from anything but a sustained siege. The waters were also deep enough to allow for heavily laden ships to approach and offload their cargoes. Dedicated to commercial activity, Tyre was supplied with food and other essentials by its sister city of Ushu. Tyrian fleets established colonies around the Mediterranean, including those on Cyprus and the North African city of Carthage, to draw on the resources of these areas, especially metals, and to funnel goods back and forth between the eastern and western Mediterranean. Throughout this region there is archaeological evidence of Phoenician metalwork and pottery, indicating the extent and longevity of trade relations. The principal exports were cedar wood, fabrics and dyes, and glasswork. According to Josephus, Tyre and its king, Ethbaal III, were involved in numerous coalitions and conspiracies against the Babylonians.

26:7. Nebuchadnezzar's siege of Tyre. According to Josephus the Babylonian siege of Tyre lasted thirteen years (c. 586573 B.C.). A Babylonian text claims that Nebuchadnezzar was present during the siege. Apparently the long siege ended with a treaty stipulating that the Tyrian royal house was to be deported to Babylon. Although the king of Tyre was allowed to stay, he was under the control of a Babylonian commissioner. Tyre's power was effectively exhausted by the long siege.

26:8. siege works and ramps. The writer has an intimate knowledge of siege warfare. One constructed siege mounds and ramps up against the city wall of the city to be besieged. There is plentiful evidence of siege ramps on Assyrian wall reliefs, and a siege ramp has been uncovered at the city of Lachish that was used by the Assyrians in their successful conquest of the Judean fortress. Tyre was especially difficult to conquer because much of the city was on an island near the coast.

26:8. raising shields. A roof of shields was constructed over the battering ram to protect the attackers when the ram was brought up to the city walls.

26:9. battering rams. Battering rams were often depicted by the Assyrians as large wooden wheeled machines used to break apart the city gates.

26:10. Babylonian use of cavalry and chariotry. The Chaldeans were renown for their use of cavalry and chariotry, inheriting the use of both from the Assyrians (see comment on Jer 6:23). The Assyrians often depicted horse-drawn chariots in the midst of battle on wall reliefs.

26:11. strong pillars. The strong pillars are probably a symbolic expression signifying the end of resistance. However, Herodotus mentioned emerald and gold pillars that adorned the Heracles (Melqart) temple at Tyre. Assyrian wall reliefs depict two external pillars on a Tyre temple.

27:3. Tyre's merchant city status. Tyre had two major sea ports, a natural harbor to the north and an artificial one to the south. By this time, Tyre served as a middleman for the Mediterranean world, transferring products to and from distant ports for at least half a millennium.

27:5. pine trees from Senir. The type of the tree mentioned is probably of the juniper variety, the eastern savin. According to Deuteronomy 3:9, Mount Senir was the Amorite name for Mount Hermon in the southern portion of the Anti-Lebanon range east of the Baka Valley. The Assyrians called it Saniru.

27:5-7. shipbuilding materials. The shipbuilding materials listed here were of the highest quality in the eastern Mediterranean. Pine and fir were preferred by the Egyptians for masts and yards. The hardwood oars lining both sides of the Phoenician biremes (ships with two racks of oarpullers on each side) were of the most durable wood. Inlaid ivory came from Kittion on the island of Cyprus. Variegated linens from Egypt were in high demand throughout the region. The dyes used for the awnings were the most expensive.

27:7. Elishah. The location of the islands of Elishah is uncertain. Elishah was a son of Javan (Gen 10:4). The name was applied to a Tyrian colony famous for its dyes. Elishah is probably the Alashiya of the Amarna tablets, usually designated as Cyprus. Seven Amarna tablets mention a king of Alashiya, who wrote letters to the Egyptian monarchs in the thirteenth century B.C.

27:8. Sidon and Arvad. Sidon and Arvad were Phoenician cities that lay on the Mediterranean coast north of Tyre. Arvad was about 110 miles north, while Sidon was about 25. They appear at this time to have been subordinate to Tyre. Both cities were often mentioned in the Amarna letters and Assyrian annals.

27:9. Gebal. Like Sidon and Arvad, Gebal (or Byblos) was a Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast north of Tyre, about sixty miles away. It was apparently in a subordinate position to its southern neighbor. Byblos was a trading partner with Egypt in the third millennium B.C. and figured prominently in the Amarna texts and Assyrian annals.

27:10. Persia, Lydia, Put. In listing Persia, Lydia and Put, Ezekiel was signifying the peoples living at the outermost parts of the known world. Persia was in western Iran and Lydia in central Turkey, while Put may referred to the Libyans west of Egypt.

27:11. Arvad, Helech, Gammad. The city of Arvad has already been encountered in verse 8. Helech (Hebrew, "your army") is unattested elsewhere in the Old Testament as a toponym. It has, however, been associated with Hilakku (Cilicia in southeastern Turkey) in the Assyrian annals. The location of Gammad is uncertain, but it may be equated with Qumidi in the Amarna tablets, possibly north of Tyre on the Mediterranean coast.

27:12. Tarshish. Tarshish was associated with metal industries. The annals of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon associate a place called Tarsisi with Cyprus and other islands. There was also a Tartessus mentioned in classical sources as a Phoenician colony in western Spain.

27:13. Greece, Tubal, Meschech. Javan (or Ionians) was the biblical designation for the Greek world. Tubal (Taballu) was the Assyrian designation for a central Anatolian kingdom. Like Tubal, Meschech (Mushku) was listed as a central Anatolian kingdom in the Assyrian annals. Both Anatolian states had bad relations with Assyria.

27:14. Beth Togarmah. Beth Togarmah was most likely the capital city of Kammanu, a central Anatolian kingdom. It was known in Hittite sources as Tegaramara, and in Assyrian sources as Til-Garimmu.

27:15. Rhodes. The mention of Rhodes here is problematic in the earliest manuscripts of the Old Testament. Others read Danuna, a region north of Tyre mentioned in the Amarna letters.

27:16. Aram. Aram refers to the Syrian hinterland from Upper Mesopotamia in the north to Damascus in the south.

27:17. Minnith. Minnith was an Ammonite region in the Transjordan mentioned in Judges 11:33. Eusebius, the fourth-century A.D. church historian, identified it with the town Maanith, four miles from Heshbon.

27:18. Helbon, Zahar. Helbon is identified with the Assyrian Hilbinu, modern Helbun, ten miles north of Damascus. Zahar (or Sahar) was probably the wilderness of es-Sahra, northwest of Damascus.

27:19. Greeks from Uzal. Uzal is probably equated with Izalla, a site in the Anatolian foothills of Cilicia. Greeks (or Ionians) may have had a relationship with the town, but this is otherwise unattested.

27:19. Cassia and Calamus. The city of Damascus traded in qiddu (probably cassia), a costly perfume native to east Asia. Calamus was an aromatic grass used in perfume, cosmetics, flavoring and medicine. This particular type of calamus probably came from India.

27:20. Dedan. Dedan was a central Arabian oasis where Tyre received its special riding gear. It is identified with the modern site of al-Ula, which is situated on the frankincense road from Yemen to Palestine.

27:20. saddle blankets. The term here translated as "saddle blankets" is probably derived from an Akkadian root referring to "a covering for a horse."

27:21. Kedar. See comment on Isaiah 42:11.

27:22. Sheba and Raamah. For Sheba, see comment on Isaiah 60:6. Raamah is mentioned in the Old Testament only in conjunction with Sheba. It may be associated with Rgmt (the vowels of the ancient name are not certain), a city in the district of Najran in central Arabia.

27:23. Haran, Canneh, Eden, Sheba, Ashur, Kilmad. All these areas were to the north and east of Tyre. Haran was situated on the Balikh River in Upper Mesopotamia. Canneh is probably Assyrian Kannu, the location of which is unknown. Eden is Bit Adini, an Aramean state west of the Balikh River in Syria. Ashur was the name of the old capital city of Assyria, as well as the name of the primary god of Assyria. Kilmad is otherwise unknown.

27:24. merchandise. The merchandise listed here is very rare and exotic. Many of the words are hapax legomena, that is, words that occur only here in Scripture. Cognates with Akkadian have helped somewhat in shedding light on their meaning. The "choice garments" are specially crafted garments of some type. They are accompanied by expensive blue- purple and embroidered cloaks. They are followed by a coat or mantle, woolen garments, and a multicolored coat.

27:25. ships of Tarshish. Although verse 12 denotes a specific region for Tarshish (i.e., Spain), the designation "ships of Tarshish" seems to imply a Phoenician provenance similar to what is found in Isaiah 23:118. Thus they may have been ships bound for Tarshish.

28:2. ruler of Tyre. The king of Tyre at this time was Ethbaal III, although nothing in this oracle is known to be specifically about him. The text claims that the prince is claiming equality with the patron deity of Tyre, Melqart, a fact unattested in extrabiblical literature.

28:3. Daniel. Some perceive this person to be a famous extrabiblical character known from the Ugaritic Epic of Keret. But the Ugaritic Danil was not particularly known for great wisdom. The biblical Daniel was probably well known to Ezekiel because of his exceptional gifts. For more information see the comment on 14:14.

28:12. lament. There are numerous laments or funeral dirges in the Old Testament and in ancient Near Eastern literature. They are often directed towards cities or nations, but there are also laments concerning the death of individuals. In this case the "lament" is a sarcastic piece of mocking literature. See comment on 19:1.

28:12. seal of perfection. Assyrian royal epithets included the titles "perfect man" and "perfect king." The term was also used in divine attributes. Here the king is likened to a finely carved stamp seal (see sidebar in Jer 32). These were often made from semiprecious stones and served both as a mark of identity and a protective amulet.

28:13. list of precious stones. In Exodus 28:1720 and 39:1013 the high priest's breastplate contains twelve precious stones, many of which are repeated here. A gem-studded garment would be a very clear indication of his grandeur, but there is no indication here that a breastplate is intended. Kings sometimes wore gem-encrusted headbands. Jeweled pectorals or breastplates are known from the ancient world as well. The identification of a number of these gemstones is problematic. Thus modern translations have not agreed on the nature of the nine gems. Carnelian is preferable to ruby; topaz is possibly the yellow-green olivine called peridot; the third is not diamond (NASB) or emerald (NIV), but it is a hard stone of some sort; the fourth is likely a yellow stone (D. Block suggests Spanish gold topaz); for the fifth, onyx is normal and probable; the sixth is commonly regarded as some sort of jasper; the seventh is lapis lazuli (with the NIV note); the eighth is very uncertain; and the last is believed by most to be emerald.

28:14. cherub. The term cherub(im) occurs over ninety times in the Old Testament in reference to heavenly creatures. They appear to be winged beings but are greatly varied. There are examples of cherubim with many faces, bovine faces, aquiline faces and human faces. They are described in a way to correspond to various forms of composite beasts depicted in ancient Near Eastern art, especially in Assyria. Because of their composite animal and human features, they were apt symbols of divine presence, both in Israel and in surrounding regions. Here it is undoubtedly a reference to the guardian of the tree of life in Genesis 3:24 (see comment there). Likening the prince of Tyre to a cherub suggests that he was entrusted with the stewardship of divine property. The natural resources of this region, especially the cedar forests, were often considered the property of the gods in Mesopotamian sources (for instance, the Gilgamesh Epic). Artifacts also support the picture presented here. Cherubim are frequently depicted on the carved ivories of this period, and at times the king is portrayed as a cherub. The carvings can be jewel-studded, and decorations feature flowers and mountains. For more information on cherubim, see comments on 10:1 and Exodus 25:1820.

28:14. holy mountain. The concept of holy mountains was common in the ancient world. Ancient Near Eastern thought, not unlike that familiar from Greek mythology, visualized a mountain height as the dwelling place of deity. There would have been little difference in their minds between the tops of mountains and the heavens. Baal's home was purported in Ugaritic literature to be Mount Zaphon. In Israelite terms the two most significant sacred mountains were Mount Sinai and the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. While there is no parallel in ancient Near Eastern thinking suggesting a paradise on a mountain, the garden of Eden functions as a paradise largely because it is the place of God's presence, a cosmic Holy of Holies. The holy mountain is then very appropriate as a parallel to Eden, for both concern God's presence. In Ezekiel 31:16 the forests of Lebanon and the garden of Eden are again associated.

28:14. fiery stones. There are numerous connections possible for understanding the "fiery stones." In the realm of iconography they are represented as the decorative ornamentation on some of the ivory pieces (see comment on "cherubim" above). In mythology, it should be noted that there is a palace of fused gemstones described in Ugaritic texts. In legend, Gilgamesh encounters on his journeys a grove where the trees and bushes are full of precious stones. Any of these could offer a context for the picture given here by the text.

28:16-17. Satan connection. From early on in church history there has been an interpretive tradition understanding this passage as an account of the fall of Satan. Though this same type of interpretation in Isaiah 14 was fervently denied by well-respected exegetes such as John Calvin (who bluntly ridiculed it), it has persisted into modern times. From a background standpoint, it must be noted that Satan is never portrayed as either being a cherub or being with the cherub in the garden in any passage of Scripture. Furthermore, Israel's understanding of Satan was far more limited than that found in the New Testament. Even in Job, Satan is not a personal name but a function (see comment on Job 1:6). "Satan" does not become identified as the personal name of the chief of demons until about the second century B.C., and he does not take up his position as the source and cause of all evil until the unfolding of Christian doctrine. Consequently, the Israelites could not have understood this passage in this way, and no New Testament passage offers a basis for departing from the Israelite understanding of it. In the context, it is a metaphorical description of the high stewardship entrusted to the prince of Tyre (as significant as the cherub's role in the garden). Rather than treating this sacred trust with reverence and awe, he exploited it to his own benefitas if the cherub of the garden had opened a roadside fruit stand. He was therefore discharged from his position, relieved of his trust and publicly humiliated.

28:18. desecrated sanctuaries. In Ezekiel, the temple of Israel is desecrated when it is despoiled by the Babylonians (Ezek 7:2122). Something can also be "desecrated" by failing to treat it as holy. Since it is unlikely that Ezekiel would consider the sanctuaries of Tyre as holy, it is more likely that in this passage the prince is charged with pillaging sanctuary treasuries or misappropriating temple funds.




Oracle Concerning Sidon


28:21. Sidon in the early sixth century. The great trading city of Sidon had been defeated by the Assyrian king Sennacherib in 701 B.C., who deposed Luli for joining an anti-Assyrian coalition. Under Abdimilikutti, Sidon again revolted against Esarhaddon of Assyria in 677 B.C. The city was destroyed to its foundations and its king was beheaded. The Assyrians rebuilt the city and named it Kar-Asarhaddon, and it became the center of Assyria's administration of the area. In Jeremiah 27:3 envoys from Sidon were included in the conspirators that met in Jerusalem in 594. A few years later Sidon was forced to submit to Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, and many of its people were deported. There is no account of the details, but some Sidonian exiles are known from the city of Uruk in Babylonia in this period. Herodotus reports that in 588 the Egyptians fought against Sidon in an attempt to gain control of the Phoenician coast, but it is likely that Sidon was already a Babylonian vassal at this time.




Oracles and Laments Concerning Egypt


29:1. chronology. Though compared to the date given in 24:1 this appears to be one year later, it has often been concluded by commentators that the notation in 24:1 was made in accordance with an nonaccession year system rather than an accession year system (see comments on 24:1; Jer 26:1; and Dan 2:1). If this is so, this oracle was given only two days after the siege of Jerusalem began. This is more likely, because the Egyptian response to the siege took place that first summer.

29:2. Egypt in the early sixth century. In the early sixth century B.C. Egypt was under the Saite or Twenty-Sixth dynasty. With the fall of Assyria, Egypt attempted to control the Levant as it had done in previous centuries. However, Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon was able to fill the power vacuum in the area, decisively defeating Egypt at the Battle of Carchemish in 605 B.C. The Egyptian pharaoh Psammeticus II (595589) had spent much of his reign attempting to regain the territory in Phoenicia and Palestine that Nebuchadnezzar had taken away from Necho II (610596) at Carchemish. Apries (Hophra) came to the throne in 589. During the early summer of the first year of the siege of Jerusalem, he dispatched an army into Palestine. This required the Babylonians to temporarily lift their siege. This, plus an Egyptian fleet that sailed to Tyre and quickly took control there (mentioned by the Greek historian Herodotus), forced Nebuchadnezzar to withdraw from Jerusalem. The Egyptians, however, were quickly defeated (possibly near Gaza) and the siege resumed by late summer.

29:3. identity of pharaoh. The reigning monarch in Egypt at this time was Apries (Hophra), who ruled 589570 B.C. However, Ezekiel is most likely addressing the office of pharaoh in general, rather than any particular monarch.

29:3. monster among the streams. For the metaphor of Egypt as a monster of chaos see comment on Isaiah 30:7. More concretely, the word used here could easily be used in reference to a crocodile. There are probably elements of both intended here.

29:4. fish metaphor. The Greek historian Herodotus described the procedure of catching crocodiles in the Nile. The hunter baited a hook with pork, letting it float in the middle of the river. On the banks of the river, the hunter began to beat a live pig. Upon hearing the cries of the pig, the crocodile went after the sound, meeting the pork, which it swallowed. In the meantime the hunter pulled the line, which included the hook and crocodile.

29:6. staff of reed metaphor. Whether used as a cane or a crutch, the reed will only collapse and cause physical damage rather than offering reliable support. The Assyrians claimed the same about Pharaoh in Isaiah 36:6. The prominence of reeds in Egypt made this a very apt metaphor for depending on Egypt. More specifically, the pharaoh held several scepters that represented his power and office. The was scepter was forked at the bottom, and the top handle was carved in the shape of a dog's head. The heqa scepter was shaped like a shepherd's crook. Though these were generally not made of reed, tomb discoveries have confirmed that at least in one instance a reed staff was included among the staffs of Pharaoh.

29:10. Migdol to Aswan. Migdol ("tower") was the name of several military stations in Egypt's northeastern frontier. Although we cannot be certain just which one is mentioned here, the term marks the northeastern border of Egypt. Syene (modern Aswan) was just north of the first cataract of the Nile, the traditional southern border of Egypt (the border of Cush/Nubia). Thus, Migdol to Aswan was the entire length of Egypt.

29:11-12. forty-year desolation and exile. Forty years was the period in which one generation flourished and died off. Thus it was a period of temporary national punishment. In a Moabite inscription, Mesha of Moab claimed that Israel occupied his land for forty years. There is some evidence of Nebuchadnezzar undertaking an invasion of Egypt in his thirty-seventh year (568), but there is no information concerning what success he might have had or whether there was any deportation of the population. Memphis was captured by the Persian king Cambyses in 525, and Pharaoh Psammeticus II was taken captive. Egypt then came under Persian control through most of the Achaemenid empire, with a brief period of revolt and independence around 460.

29:14. Upper Egypt. Upper Egypt (or the land of Pathros) designated all of Egypt south of Memphis. An ancient Egyptian tradition asserted that the nation had originated in the south in Upper Egypt. Esarhaddon of Assyria claimed to be the king of Musur (north Egypt) and Paturisi (Pathros).

29:14-15. lowly and weak kingdom. The term "lowly and weak kingdom" appears to denote that Egypt will be relegated to vassal status. Although we are not told to whom the nation will be subject, the historical record is clear enough. Conquered by Cambyses in 525, Egypt became a Persian vassal for the next two centuries.

29:17. chronology. The date is April 26, 571, one or two years after the end of the siege of Tyre.

29:18. Nebuchadnezzar's siege of Tyre. See comment on 26:7.

29:18. head rubbed bare, shoulder raw. Nebuchadnezzar's soldiers will have bare heads and raw shoulders because of the burdens put upon them in order to throw up earthworks to attack the city of Tyre. The siege ramps used to build a slope up to the walls required tons of dirt. Additionally, there was an attempt to build a causeway out to the island portion of the city. Dirt would have been carried in baskets on the head and on the shoulder.

29:18. no reward. Soldiers usually received booty in the form of persons, animals and possessions. However, Tyre was able to get an exemption from destruction by yielding to Babylon. Thus there was no pillaging of the city.

29:19. Nebuchadnezzar and Egypt. It was inevitable that Nebuchadnezzar would eventually have to invade and attempt to conquer Egypt. The Medes had united the territory east of the Tigris, effectively cutting Babylon off from direct trade with the east, and the Egyptians, with their Phoenician allies, were constantly causing political and commercial problems in the west and along the Arabian trade routes. An extended (thirteen-year according to the fourth-century Greek historian Menander) siege bottled up Tyre and devastated much of Phoenicia (584571). A fragmentary portion of Nebuchadnezzar's annals from his thirty-seventh year, Herodotus and Ezekiel 29:1921 refer to the invasion of Egypt in 568, but no details are given other than victories over desert tribes. It is likely that some Babylonian garrisons were installed in the fortresses of the Sinai following this campaign.

29:21. horn metaphor. The horns of an animal were considered tokens of their power and thus were a figure of strength. Many of the deities of Mesopotamia were depicted with horns. Thus, making a horn to sprout signifies a return of Israel's power. Additionally, it must be noted that the crowns of kings also often featured horns, and a horn could therefore refer more specifically to a king (see comment on Dan 7:7).

30:4. Egypt connected to Cush. Cush, the neighboring country to the south of Egypt, known as Nubia, had had relations with its northern neighbor since the beginning of recorded history. Egypt had a dominant trading relationship with Cush for many centuries and occasionally conquered the area. By the mid-eighth century, however, the Cushites had been successful in conquering Egypt, and they ruled the land for nearly a century.

30:5. geography. The first three areas listed (Cush, Put and Lud) are also mentioned in Ezekiel 27:10. Cush (Nubia) was adjacent to Egypt on the south; Put (Lybia) was adjacent to the west. Lydia was to the north across the Mediterranean and was a frequent ally of Egyptians against various enemies to the east. Arabia could refer to the Arabian peninsula to the southeast, but it would be unusual for this Hebrew word to be used that way. It is more frequently used to refer to a mixed assortment of ethnic groups. It is known that the Egyptians during this period used mercenaries from throughout western Asia and the eastern Mediterranean. Kub (NIV: Libya) is an unknown area probably also within modern Libya. The "land of the covenant" is a reference to soldiers of an unnamed country, probably Judah, which had a military relationship with Egypt at this time and probably supplied mercenaries, as did all of these other lands. Jeremiah is aware of a Jewish settlement in Egypt (see comment on Jer 44:1).

30:6. Migdol to Aswan. See comment on 29:10.

30:9. messengers to Cush in ships. The term here for "ships" (an Egyptian loan word) refers to military boats rather than reed boats or merchant ships. Nubia felt that having Egypt as a buffer zone offered a certain amount of protection from any of the powers from the east that would arise. Though the Egyptian pharaoh Psammeticus II campaigned against Nubia in 593, it is not attack from Egypt that is threatened in this passage. The Persian king Cambyses invaded Nubia in 525, and from that time it was counted as part of the empire. Nubians served as mercenaries in the Persian army.

30:10-11. Nebuchadnezzar and Egypt. See comment on 29:19.

30:12. sell land. In the ancient world the concept of selling something did not emphasize "getting money" as it might in today's economy. Rather the emphasis was on the transfer of ownership. In Akkadian the word for sell is also the word for give. Ruth 4:35 shows that flexibility in the Hebrew term used here as well. As a result, it is not pertinent to ask what Yahweh is receiving in return. That is not the issue. He is transferring possession of the land from Egypt to Babylon.

30:13. images of Memphis. Memphis was the royal residence during this period and the center of the cult of the god Ptah. It was the city in which kings were enthroned. Ptah was one of the few deities that did not have an animal head. He was a creator deity and patron of the craft guilds.

30:14. Pathros. This is a reference to Upper Egypt; see comment on 29:14.

30:14. Zoan. Zoan (Hellenized as Tanis) was a town in the eastern Nile Delta, an important administrative center in the eighth and seventh centuries B.C.

30:14. Thebes. Thebes (or No-Amon in Egyptian) was the main city of Upper Egypt and had been the capital of the nation for centuries during the New Kingdom. It was surrounded by a spectacular array of monumental sacred precincts.

30:15. Pelusium. Sin was an important fortress town in the northeast frontier of the Delta region usually identified with Pelusium. It held a strategic position in Egypt's defense against invaders from Western Asia.

30:17. Heliopolis. Aven (Hellenized as Heliopolis, "city of the sun god") was at the apex of the Nile Delta region, just north of the city of Cairo. It normally appears in Hebrew as On (see Gen 41:45, 50).

30:17. Bubastis. Pi-Beset (Hellenized as Bubastis) was a town in the Nile Delta region. It is modern Tell Basta, located thirty-five miles south of Cairo on the Tanitic branch of the Nile. It was the residence of Sheshonq (Shiskak), a powerful monarch of the Twenty-Second Dynasty in the tenth century B.C.

30:18. Tahpanhes. Tahpanhes was an outpost in the eastern Delta region of the Nile, bordering the Sinai. It was later known as Daphne by the Greeks, who inhabited the outpost as mercenaries by the seventh century B.C. The Greek historian Herodotus states that Daphne was one of three outposts set up by the Egyptians to stop the Assyrian invasion. The Israelites in flight from the Babylonians may have stopped there in the early sixth century B.C.

30:20. chronology. The date is April 29, 587 B.C., just a few months after the date given in 29:1. The Egyptian interference is imminent, but Ezekiel warns that nothing will come of it.

30:21. the arm of Pharaoh. In Scripture the arm is the symbol of aggressive power, and thus the breaking of the arm signifies that the individual in question has been rendered impotent (see Ps 10:15; 37:17). The image of an outstretched or mighty hand or arm is common in Egyptian inscriptions to describe the power of Pharaoh. It is used throughout the Exodus narratives to describe God's power over Pharaoh. In the fourteenth-century B.C. Amarna letters, Abdi-Heba, the governor of Jerusalem, refers to "the strong arm of the king" as the basis for his government appointment. Similarly, the Eighteenth-Dynasty Hymn to Osiris equates his growing to majority with the phrase "when his arm was strong," and Haremhab's Hymn to Thoth describes the moon god as guiding the divine bark through the sky with "arms outstretched."

30:23. scattering Egyptians. See comment on 29:1112.

31:1. chronology. The date is June 21, 587 B.C., nearly two months after the date mentioned in Ezekiel 30:20. Since there is no firm information concerning the date of the Egyptian interference, it is difficult to relate this oracle to the timing of the event.

31:2. identity of Pharaoh. As in 29:3 Ezekiel is probably addressing the office of pharaoh in general. Hophra was the reigning monarch in 587 B.C. (see the note on 29:3).

31:3-17. extent, duration and power of Assyria. The power of the Assyrian state waxed and waned for nearly three centuries (c. 900612 B.C.). At its height its geographic range was enormous, ranging from Iran in the east to central Egypt, central Anatolia and Cyprus in the west. It covered much of the Arabian desert in the south and ranged as far north as modern Armenia. In Ezekiel's time it had passed off the scene rather recently (about twenty years earlier), so it served as a perfect image of a long-standing superpower that had crumbled to nothing.

31:3-14. tree metaphor. The tree used for the metaphor here is the cedar, a well-known ancient Near Eastern symbol of majesty. It was used for the construction of many important palaces and temples. Egyptian, Assyrian and Babylonian kings all recount how they cut down the cedars of Lebanon in order to construct their mighty edifices. The myth of a cosmic tree is also found in Mesopotamian contexts. Its roots are fed by the great subterranean ocean, and its top merges with the clouds, so that it binds together the heavens, the earth and the netherworld. The Sumerian account of the Epic of Gilgamesh has a motif of a great tree offering shelter to animals. The Sumerian goddess Inanna discovered the sacred cosmic tree on the banks of the Euphrates and transplanted it into her sacred garden at Uruk (biblical Erech), where it attracted the mythical Anzu (a bird deity), a snake and Lilith (an evil demon). In the Myth of Erra and Ishum, Marduk speaks of the meshu tree whose roots reach down through the oceans to the netherworld and whose top is above the heavens. In Assyrian contexts the motif of a sacred tree is also well known. Some have called it a tree of life, and some also associate it with this world tree. It is often flanked by animals or by human or divine figures. A winged disk is typically centrally located over the top of the tree. The king is represented as the human personification of this tree. The tree is thought to represent the divine world order, but textual discussion of it is lacking. As is often the case in Ezekiel, this mythical motif is transformed to a political image.

31:8-9. garden of God. The garden of God in Ezekiel is identified as Eden. Here, however, it is not invoking the image of a utopian home from which humans have been driven. Unlike the paradise motif in the Bible, the Mesopotamian garden of the gods was the beautiful protected property of the gods that humans trespassed at their peril. Such was the cedar forest to which Gilgamesh and his companion Enkidu gained access when they defeated the divinely appointed guardian of the forest, Huwawa. These gardens, like the royal gardens of this period, were wooded parks featuring beautiful and exotic trees. This description is also appropriate for the biblical Eden.

31:12. Assyria's fall. The Assyrian empire was at its height in the early seventh century B.C., as it was successful in conquering Egypt. However, a great civil war in 652648 B.C. showed the inherent weakness of the huge state. After the devastation of the civil war Assyria quickly weakened. By the end of Ashurbanipal's reign (either 631 or 627 B.C.) all economic and other textual sources disappear from Nineveh, the Assyrian capital. By 626 B.C. the Chaldeans of Babylonia had declared their independence. Within fourteen years all of the major Assyrian cities had been destroyed, the monarchy had fled to Harran in Syria, and the army was in chaos. The Assyrians may have participated in the Battle of Carchemish against Nebuchadnezzar, but they were never heard from again. Thus in the forty or so years after the great civil war, Assyria had been consigned to oblivion.

31:16. comparison of Eden to Lebanon. This comparison draws together the biblical motif of Eden as the protected property of Yahweh and the Mesopotamian motif of the cedar forest as the protected property of the gods. See comment on 31:89.

31:18. uncircumcised. There is evidence that Egypt's priests and kings endured some form of circumcision. In general, the Israelites disdained the uncircumcised, and possibly the Egyptian royalty felt the same way. Contempt of the uncircumcised appears in both the Egyptian and Israelite practice of cutting off the uncircumcised penises of enemies.

32:1. chronology. The date is March 3, 585 B.C., a few months after the report of the fall of Jerusalem had reached Ezekiel.

32:2. monster in the seas. The monster in this case is not located in the Nile River but "in the seas." This reference is probably to the cosmic monsters destroyed by God (see Is 51:910; Ps 74:13). In the Bible as well as in the ancient Near East, the sea represents chaos and disorder, as do the sea monsters that live there. The obvious physical struggle between the sea and the land as well as the fierce, seemingly unstoppable energy displayed by the savage sea gave rise to cosmic myths in the ancient Near East. The Enuma Elish creation epic from Babylon describes how Marduk vanquished Tiamat while this goddess of watery chaos was in the form of a dragon. Much of the cycle of stories about Baal in Ugaritic legend involves Baal's struggle against his rival Yamm, the god of the sea. Similarly, the Ugaritic epic has both Anat and Baal claim to have conquered Litan, the seven-headed dragon, and thus gained mastery over the seas. In Psalm 104:26, Yahweh is said to play with Leviathan, and in Job 41:111, God challenges Job to show his control over Leviathan as God does. The kingdoms represented by these beasts are therefore associated with the forces of chaos that bring disorder to God's world and need to be overcome (see comments on Dan 7).

32:2. lion/monster. The parallel between lion and monster (dragon) seems strange to us but was not at all unusual in Ezekiel's world. The famous Ishtar Gate in Babylon and the procession way leading up to it used glazed bricks to create alternating images of lions and dragons. Additionally, in the mythological traditions of Mesopotamia a composite creature that combined lion and dragon features was common. This is especially true of Labbu in the Labbu Myth. From as early as the beginning of the second millennium, kings used lion and dragon in parallel to describe themselves.

32:2. churning, muddying waters. This description indicates a typical mythical scene in which the churning of the cosmic ocean disturbs the creatures (often sea monsters) who represent the forces of chaos and disorder. In Enuma Elish the sky god, Anu, creates the four winds that stir up the deep and its goddess, Tiamat. Here it is the monster who churns up the sea with the threat that chaos will bring disorder to the world.

32:3. capture with net. In both the Erra Epic and Enuma Elish the creature representing the forces of chaos (Anzu and Tiamat respectively) is captured in a net.

32:4. huge carcass devoured by birds and beasts. In the Labbu Myth, Labbu is described as a monster fifty miles long and a mile wide.

32:6. drenched with blood. In the Labbu Myth the blood of the slain monster is said to flow for three years and three months.

32:7-8. cosmic effects. These cosmic effects reflect the world-upside-down motif that is well known in the ancient world (see comment on Jer 4:2326). It additionally strikes at the heart of the Egyptian religion, which featured the sun god most prominently.

32:11. sword of the king of Babylon. See comment on 29:19.

32:14. streams flowing like oil. The muddy waters have settled at the bottom of the river and have given way to clear, smoothly flowing rivers that run like oil. Similar phraseology ("heavens raining down oil") is found in the Ugaritic Baal texts, but there, as elsewhere in the Bible, it is an image of prosperity. In the contrast presented here, flowing like oil means that it is undisturbed, and it is undisturbed because the land is desolate.

32:17. chronology. The date is March 17, 585 B.C., two weeks later than the date mentioned in 32:1.

32:21-22. Assyria with her dead in Sheol. The nations listed in 2230 all suffered significant devastation. Ezekiel probably has in mind the final defeat and destruction of the Assyrian empire at the end of the sixth century B.C. Her armies were probably finally destroyed at the battle of Carchemish, where Egypt (and probably Assyria) was decisively defeated by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. Thus, the imagery sees that the final end of Assyria is in Sheol, the abode of the dead.

32:24. Elam. Elam was an important state in southwestern Iran (modern Khuzistan). Its main city was Susa, which had a very ancient history and is mentioned in Sumerian and proto-Elamite records from the outset of the third millennium B.C. Elam was devastated by the Assyrians in the late seventh century B.C. It was invaded by Nebuchadnezzar in 596 and was taken over by the Medo-Persians later in the sixth century B.C.

32:26. Meschech and Tubal. At the end of the eighth century, these two Anatolian kingdoms were ravaged by internal warfare, conquered by Sargon II of Assyria and invaded by the Cimmerians from southern Russia. Unfortunately, little of their history survives from the seventh and early sixth centuries. It is thought that they were incorporated under Lydian control after the conclusion of the Cimmerian wars. In the spring of 585 the Lydians are at war with the Medes (see chronology in v. 1 above and comment on 38:1). They are mentioned again in the Persian period as separate ethnic identities. They are known to the Assyrians as Mushku (central Anatolia) and Tabal (eastern Anatolia), and to Herodotus as the Moschi and Tibarenoi (subject states of the Persian empire). At the end of the eighth century the king of Mushku was Mita, known to the Greeks as Midas, the king with the golden touch. His tomb has been identified at Gordion and excavated.

32:29. Edom. Edom was a Semitic-speaking neighbor of Judah, south and east of the Dead Sea. In the eighth century B.C. Edom fell under the control of the Assyrians, as noted in the annals of Tiglath-Pileser III (r. 745727 B.C.), and continued under their rule until the death of Ashurbanipal a century later. During that time the Edomites were often conscripted into the Assyrian armies and thus figure often in the annals. During the Babylonian period Edom evidently sided with the great empire, although there are no extrabiblical records to verifying this. It is likely that they submitted themselves to Nebuchadnezzar's rule in 605 B.C. Although some Judean refugees may have found shelter in Edom, it apparently remained passive as Jerusalem was destroyed (see Ps 137:7 and Obad 11). The Babylonian campaign against Ammon and Moab in 594 seems not to have affected Edom. It is likely that they remained unscathed until the time of Nabonidus's campaign in 552 B.C.

32:30. princes of the north. The princes of the north are most likely Aramean rulers or sheiks. There were a number of hostile Aramean kingdoms north of Israel/Judah, the largest centered in Damascus.

32:30. Sidonians. See the comment on 28:21.





IVP Hard Sayings of the Bible


28:1119 The King of Tyre or Satan?

            Is this simply bold, exaggerated, metaphorical language describing the king of Tyre, or is it an allegory or a straightforward statement about Satan? If it is the latter, then why is it addressed to the king of Tyre?

            The historic fall of Satan, otherwise not directly described in the Bible but alluded to in a number of passages, supplied the background terminology and metaphor for this text, just as it did for Isaiah 14. His fall from heaven back, apparently, before time began will supply the model for the fall of the king of Tyre, as it had for the king of Babylon.

            But in keeping with the concept of inaugurated eschatology, in which both the near and the distant future are brought together in one horizon, the fall of the king of Tyre will be but a small indication of what the fall of Satan will be like in the final day.

            The king of Tyre was compared to the Evil One himself, who was in the Garden of Eden, the garden of God. But this exalted one became corrupt and lost his position in heaven. Similarly, the king of Tyre is about to lose his position for the same reasons: he exalted himself above God. Thus the description seems to shift back and forth from the king of Tyre to Satan himself, but that fluidity of language can be seen elsewhere as the near fulfillments of many prophecies do not embrace the totality of the language as the final fulfillment does.

            Thus, the mastermind behind God's enemies is not always recognized, but here it is clearly the devil himself. He is the one that finally must suffer a fiery judgment, thereby appalling the nations who knew him, just as the nation of Tyre will suffer a fiery judgment from God, prior to God's dealing with their sponsor.


(Related textual commentary on Isaiah 14:12-14)


14:1214 Lucifer: Satan or the King of Babylon?

            In a prophecy of Isaiah addressed to the king of Babylon, there is a sudden shift from this world to a realm outside it. It describes a being with a hubris that will brook no rival who wishes to challenge God himself for position, authority and power.

            Some of the early church fathers, such as Tertullian, along with Gregory the Great and scholastic commentators, linked this prophecy in Isaiah with Luke 10:18 and Revelation 12:8. As a result, they applied the passage to the fall of Satan or Lucifer. The expositors of the Reformation era, however, would have no part of this exegesis, which they regarded as a popular perversion. The passage, in their minds, discussed human pride, not angeliceven though the pride was monumental, to be sure. Which interpretation, then, is correct? Is this passage a record of the time when Satan fell like lightning from heaven? Or is it a description of the Babylonian king only?

            The key word for resolving this problem is helel, rendered at first as an imperative of the verb signifying "howl" ("Howl, son of the morning, for your fall"). Then it was connected with the verb to shine and made a derivative denoting "bright one," or more specifically "bright star," the harbinger of daybreak. The Latin term for it became Lucifer.

            In Canaanite mythology from Ugarit, the god Athtar seems to be connected with the morning star. At one point, the gods attempted to replace Baal with Athtar, but he declined, as he found that he was unsuited for the position. The throne was too large for him. Athtar was the son of the Ugaritic god El and his wife Asherah. Athtar was the chief god in the South Arabic pantheon, known there as an astral deity, the planet Venus. In the Ugaritic world he was known as "the terrible, awesome one" or as "the lion." Some have translated the first epithet as "a flash [of lightning]." The Ugaritic text 49, column 1, tells how his greed for power caused him to ascend the vacant throne of Baal, who had been dealt a death blow by the god of death, Mot. Assisted by his mother, he attempted to fill the vacuum left by Baal, but he was unable to do so. His feet did not reach the footstool, and his head did not clear the top of the throne. So he descended from the throne of Baal, stepping down so that "he might rule over the grand earth." Like Isaiah's Lucifer, he had aspired to ascend to a throne above the heavens but suffered a fall.

            While there are a number of similarities between the Ugaritic myth and Isaiah's account, no great interpretive advantage seems to be gained by following this lead. "The mount of assembly" is parallel with Mount Zaphon or Mount Cassius in North Syria, where the gods assembled. Whether the story Isaiah tells came first or the Ugaritic myth cannot be decided from this text. Normally one would expect the real event to have been told before the mythmakers took up the tale and made secondary applications of it.

            So is the story referring to the king of Babylon in hyperbolic terms, or does it refer to Satan? Normally the rules of sound interpretation demand that we assign only one interpretation to every passage; otherwise the text just fosters confusion.

            In this situation, however, the prophet uses a device that is found often in prophetic texts: he links near and distant prophecies together under a single sense, or meaning, since the two entities, though separated in space and time, are actually part and parcel of each other.

            Isaiah saw the king of Babylon as possessing an enormous amount of disgusting pride and arrogance. In cultivating aspirations that exceeded his stature and ability, he paralleled the ultimate ruler with an exaggerated sense of his own accomplishments: Satan.

            Just as there was a long messianic line in the Old Testament, and everyone who belonged to that line was a partial manifestation of the One to come and yet not that One, so there was an antimessianic line of kings in the line of antichrist and Satan. The king of Babylon was one in a long line of earthly kings who stood opposed to God and all that he stood for.

            This would explain the hyperbolic language, which while true in a limited sense of the king of Babylon, applied ultimately to the one who would culminate this line of evil, arrogant kings. In this sense, the meaning of the passage is single, not multiple or even double. Since the parts belonged to the whole and shared the marks of the whole, they were all of one piece.

            Just as the king of Babylon wanted equality with God, Satan's desire to match God's authority had precipitated his fall. All this served as a model for the antichrist, who would imitate Satan, and this most recent dupe in history, the king of Babylon, in the craving for power.

            A similar linking of the near and the distant occurs in Ezekiel 28, where a prophecy against the king of Tyre uses the same hyperbolic language (Ezek 28:1119). In a similar fashion the prophet Daniel predicted the coming of Antiochus Epiphanes (Dan 11:2935); in the midst of the passage, however, he leaps over the centuries in verse 35 to link Antiochus Epiphanes to the antichrist of the final day, since they shared so much as members of the line of the antimessiah. Thus this prophetic device is well attested in the Old Testament and should not cause us special concern.


JFB Commentary




            If Israel was not spared, much less the heathen utterly corrupt, and having no mixture of truth, such as Israel in its worst state possessed (1 Peter 4:17, 18). Their ruin was to be utter: Israel's but temporary (Jeremiah 46:28). The nations denounced are seven, the perfect number; implying that God's judgments would visit, not merely these, but the whole round of the heathen foes of God. Babylon is excepted, because she is now for the present viewed as the rod of God's retributive justice, a view too much then lost sight of by those who fretted against her universal supremacy.


3. (Jeremiah 49:1). when . . . profaned; . . . when . . . desolate; . . . when . . . captivity rather, "for . . . for . . . for": the cause of the insolent exultation of Ammon over Jerusalem. They triumphed especially over the fall of the "sanctuary," as the triumph of heathenism over the rival claims of Jehovah. In Jehoshaphat's time, when the eighty-third Psalm was written (Psalms 83:4, 7, 8, 12, "Ammon . . . holpen the children of Lot," who were, therefore, the leaders of the unholy conspiracy, "Let us take to ourselves the houses of God in possession"), we see the same profane spirit. Now at last their wicked wish seems accomplished in the fall of Jerusalem. Ammon, descended from Lot, held the region east of Jordan, separated from the Amorites on the north by the river Jabbok, and from Moab on the south by the Arnon. They were auxiliaries to Babylon in the destruction of Jerusalem (2 Kings 24:2).


4. men of . . . east literally, "children of the East," the nomad tribes of Arabia-Deserta, east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea. palaces their nomadic encampments or folds, surrounded with mud walls, are so called in irony. Where thy "palaces" once stood, there shall their very different "palaces" stand. Fulfilled after the ravaging of their region by Nebuchadnezzar, shortly after the destruction of Jerusalem (compare Ezekiel 21:22; Jeremiah 49:1-28).


5. Rabbah meaning "the Great," Ammon's metropolis. Under the Ptolemies it was rebuilt under the name Philadelphia; the ruins are called Amman now, but there is no dwelling inhabited. Ammonites that is the Ammonite region is to be a "couching place for flocks," namely of the Arabs. The "camels," being the chief beast of burden of the Chaldeans, are put first, as their invasion was to prepare the Ammonite land for the Arab "flocks." Instead of busy men, there shall be "still and couching flocks."


6, 7. "Because thou hast clapped thine hands," exulting over the downfall of Jerusalem, "I also will stretch out Mine hand upon thee" (to which Ezekiel 21:17 also may refer, "I will smite Mine hands together"). hands . . . feet . . . heart with the whole inward feeling, and with every outward indication. Stamping with the foot means dancing for joy.


7. a spoil so the Hebrew Margin, or Keri, for the text or Chetib, "meat" (so Ezekiel 26:5; 34:28). Their goods were to be a "spoil to the foe"; their state was to be "cut off," so as to be no more a "people"; and they were as individuals, for the most part, to be "destroyed."


8. Moab, Seir, and Ammon were contiguous countries, stretching in one line from Gilead on the north to the Red Sea. They therefore naturally acted in concert, and in joint hostility to Judea. Judah is like . . . all . . . heathen The Jews fare no better than others: it is of no use to them to serve Jehovah, who, they say, is the only true God.


9, 10. open . . . from the cities I will open up the side, or border of Moab (metaphor from a man whose side is open to blows), from the (direction of) the cities on his northwest border beyond the Arnon, once assigned to Reuben (Joshua 13:15-21), but now in the hands of their original owners; and the "men of the east," the wandering Bedouin hordes, shall enter through these cities into Moab and waste it. Moab accordingly was so wasted by them, that long before the time of Christ it had melted away among the hordes of the desert. For "cities," GROTIUS translates the Hebrew as proper names, the Ar and Aroer, on the Arnon. Hence the Hebrew for "cities," "Ar" is repeated twice (Numbers 21:28; Deuteronomy 2:36; Isaiah 15:1). glory of the country The region of Moab was richer than that of Ammon; it answers to the modern Belka, the richest district in South Syria, and the scene in consequence of many a contest among the Bedouins. Hence it is called here a "glorious land" (literally, "a glory," or "ornament of a land") [FAIRBAIRN]. Rather, "the glory of the country" is in apposition with "cities" which immediately precedes, and the names of which presently follow. Beth-jeshimoth meaning "the city of desolations"; perhaps so named from some siege it sustained; it was towards the west. Baal-meon called also "Beth-meon" (Jeremiah 48:23), and "Beth-baal-meon" (Joshua 13:17, called so from the worship of Baal), and "Bajith," simply (Isaiah 15:2). Kiriathaim "the double city." The strength of these cities engendered "the pride" of Moab (Isaiah 16:6).


10. with the Ammonites FAIRBAIRN explains and translates, "upon the children of Ammon" (elliptically for, "I will open Moab to the men of the east, who, having overrun the children of Ammon, shall then fall on Moab"). MAURER, as English Version, "with the Ammonites," that is, Moab, "together with the land of Ammon," is to be thrown "open to the men of the east," to enter and take possession (Jeremiah 49:1-39).


12. taking vengeance literally, "revenging with revengement," that is, the most unrelenting vengeance. It was not simple hatred, but deep-brooding, implacable revenge. The grudge of Edom or Esau was originally for Jacob's robbing him of Isaac's blessing (Genesis 25:23; 27:27-41). This purpose of revenge yielded to the extraordinary kindness of Jacob, through the blessing of Him with whom Jacob wrestled in prayer; but it was revived as an hereditary grudge in the posterity of Esau when they saw the younger branch rising to the pre-eminence which they thought of right belonged to themselves. More recently, for David's subjugation of Edom to Israel (2 Samuel 8:14). They therefore gave vent to their spite by joining the Chaldeans in destroying Jerusalem (Psalms 137:7; Lamentations 4:22; Obadiah 1:10-14), and then intercepting and killing the fugitive Jews (Amos 1:11) and occupying part of the Jewish land as far as Hebron.


13. Teman . . . they of Dedan rather, "I will make it desolate from Teman (in the south) even to Dedan (in the northwest)" [GROTIUS], (Jeremiah 49:8), that is, the whole country from north to south, stretching from the south of the Dead Sea to the Elanitic gulf of the Red Sea.


14. by . . . my people Israel namely, by Judas Maccabeus. The Idumeans were finally, by compulsory circumcision, incorporated with the Jewish state by John Hyrcanus (see Isaiah 34:5; 63:1, etc.; I Maccabees 5:3). So complete was the amalgamation in Christ's time, that the Herods of Idumean origin, as Jews, ruled over the two races as one people. Thus the ancient prophecy was fulfilled (Genesis 25:23), "The elder shall serve the younger."


15. (1 Samuel 13:1-14:52; 2 Chronicles 28:18). The "old hatred" refers to their continual enmity to the covenant-people. They lay along Judea on the seacoast at the opposite side from Ammon and Moab. They were overthrown by Uzziah (2 Chronicles 26:6), and by Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:8). Nebuchadnezzar overran the cities on the seacoast on his way to Egypt after besieging Tyre (Jeremiah 47:1-7). God will take vengeance on those who take the avenging of themselves out of His hands into their own (Romans 12:19-21; James 2:13).


16. cut off the Cherethims There is a play on similar sounds in the Hebrew, hichratti cherethim, "I will slay the slayers." The name may have been given to a section of the Philistines from their warlike disposition (1 Samuel 30:14; 31:3). They excelled in archery, whence David enrolled a bodyguard from them (2 Samuel 8:18; 15:18; 20:7). They sprang from Caphtor, identified by many with Crete, which was famed for archery, and to which the name Cherethim seems akin. Though in emigration, which mostly tended westwards, Crete seems more likely to be colonized from Philistia than Philistia from Crete, a section of Cretans may have settled at Chere thim in South Philistia, while the Philistines, as a nation, may have come originally from the east (compare Deuteronomy 2:23; Jeremiah 47:4; Amos 9:7; Zephaniah 2:5). In Genesis 10:14 the Philistines are made distinct from the Caphtorim, and are said to come from the Casluhim; so that the Cherethim were but a part of the Philistines, which 1 Samuel 30:14 confirms. remnant of that is, "on the seacoast" of the Mediterranean: those left remaining after the former overthrows inflicted by Samuel, David, Hezekiah, and Psammetichus of Egypt, father of Pharaoh-necho (Jeremiah 25:20).


17. know . . . vengeance They shall know Me, not in mercy, but by My vengeance on them (Psalms 9:16).





            In the twenty-sixth chapter, Ezekiel sets forth: (1) Tyre's sin; (2) its doom; (3) the instruments executing it; (4) the effects produced on other nations by her downfall. In the twenty-seventh chapter, a lamentation over the fall of such earthly splendor. In the twenty-eighth chapter, an elegy addressed to the king, on the humiliation of his sacrilegious pride. Ezekiel, in his prophecies as to the heathen, exhibits the dark side only; because he views them simply in their hostility to the people of God, who shall outlive them all. Isaiah (Isaiah 23:1-18), on the other hand, at the close of judgments, holds out the prospect of blessing, when Tyre should turn to the Lord.


1. The specification of the date, which had been omitted in the case of the four preceding objects of judgment, marks the greater weight attached to the fall of Tyre. eleventh year namely, after the carrying away of Jehoiachin, the year of the fall of Jerusalem. The number of the month is, however, omitted, and the day only given. As the month of the taking of Jerusalem was regarded as one of particular note, namely, the fourth month, also the fifth, on which it was actually destroyed (Jeremiah 52:6, 12, 13), RABBI DAVID reasonably supposes that Tyre uttered her taunt at the close of the fourth month, as her nearness to Jerusalem enabled her to hear of its fall very soon, and that Ezekiel met it with his threat against herself on "the first day" of the fifth month.


2. Tyre (Joshua 19:29; 2 Samuel 24:7), literally, meaning "the rock-city," Zor; a name applying to the island Tyre, called New Tyre, rather than Old Tyre on the mainland. They were half a mile apart. "New Tyre," a century and a half before the fall of Jerusalem, had successfully resisted Shalmaneser of Assyria, for five years besieging it (MENANDER, from the Tyrian archives, quoted by JOSEPHUS, Antiquities, 9.14. 2). It was the stronger and more important of the two cities, and is the one chiefly, though not exclusively, here meant. Tyre was originally a colony of Zidon. Nebuchadnezzar's siege of it lasted thirteen years (Ezekiel 29:18; Isaiah 23:1-18). Though no profane author mentions his having succeeded in the siege, JEROME states he read the fact in Assyrian histories. Aha! exultation over a fallen rival (Psalms 35:21, 25). she . . . that was the gates that is, the single gate composed of two folding doors. Hence the verb is singular. "Gates" were the place of resort for traffic and public business: so here it expresses a mart of commerce frequented by merchants. Tyre regards Jerusalem not as an open enemy, for her territory being the narrow, long strip of land north of Philistia, between Mount Lebanon and the sea, her interest was to cultivate friendly relations with the Jews, on whom she was dependent for corn (Ezekiel 27:17; 1 Kings 5:9; Acts 12:20). But Jerusalem had intercepted some of the inland traffic which she wished to monopolize to herself; so, in her intensely selfish worldly-mindedness, she exulted heartlessly over the fall of Jerusalem as her own gain. Hence she incurred the wrath of God as pre-eminently the world's representative in its ambition, selfishness, and pride, in defiance of the will of God (Isaiah 23:9). she is turned unto me that is, the mart of corn, wine, oil, balsam, etc. which she once was, is transferred to me. The caravans from Palmyra, Petra, and the East will no longer be intercepted by the market ("the gates") of Jerusalem, but will come to me.


3, 4. nations . . . as the sea . . . waves In striking contrast to the boasting of Tyre, God threatens to bring against her Babylon's army levied from "many nations," even as the Mediterranean waves that dashed against her rock-founded city on all sides. scrape her dust . . . make her . . . top of . . . rock or, "a bare rock" [GROTIUS]. The soil which the Tyrians had brought together upon the rock on which they built their city, I will scrape so clean away as to leave no dust, but only the bare rock as it was. An awful contrast to her expectation of filling herself with all the wealth of the East now that Jerusalem has fallen.


5. in the midst of the sea plainly referring to New Tyre (Ezekiel 27:32).


6. her daughters . . . in the field The surrounding villages, dependent on her in the open country, shall share the fate of the mother city.


7. from the north the original locality of the Chaldeans; also, the direction by which they entered Palestine, taking the route of Riblah and Hamath on the Orontes, in preference to that across the desert between Babylon and Judea. king of kings so called because of the many kings who owned allegiance to him (2 Kings 18:28). God had delegated to him the universal earth-empire which is His (Daniel 2:47). The Son of God alone has the right and title inherently, and shall assume it when the world kings shall have been fully proved as abusers of the trust (1 Timothy 6:15; Revelation 17:12-14; 19:15, 16). Ezekiel's prophecy was not based on conjecture from the past, for Shalmaneser, with all the might of the Assyrian empire, had failed in his siege of Tyre. Yet Nebuchadnezzar was to succeed. JOSEPHUS tells us that Nebuchadnezzar began the siege in the seventh year of Ithobal's reign, king of Tyre.


9. engines of war literally, "an apparatus for striking." "He shall apply the stroke of the battering-ram against thy walls." HAVERNICK translates, "His enginery of destruction "; literally, the "destruction (not merely the stroke ) of his enginery." axes literally, "swords."


10. dust So thick shall be the "dust" stirred up by the immense numbers of "horses," that it shall "cover" the whole city as a cloud. horses . . . chariots As in Ezekiel 26:3-5, New Tyre on the insular rock in the sea (compare Isaiah 23:2, 4, 6) is referred to; so here, in Ezekiel 26:9-11, Old Tyre on the mainland. Both are included in the prophecies under one name. wheels FAIRBAIRN thinks that here, and in Ezekiel 23:24, as "the wheels" are distinct from the "chariots," some wheelwork for riding on, or for the operations of the siege, are meant.


11. thy strong garrisons literally, "the statutes of thy strength"; so the forts which are "monuments of thy strength." MAURER understands, in stricter agreement with the literal meaning, "the statues" or "obelisks erected in honor of the idols, the tutelary gods of Tyre," as Melecarte, answering to the Grecian Hercules, whose temple stood in Old Tyre (compare Jeremiah 43:13, Margin ).


12. lay thy stones . . . timber . . . in . . . midst of . . . water referring to the insular New Tyre (Ezekiel 26:3, 5; Ezekiel 27:4, 25, 26). When its lofty buildings and towers fall, surrounded as it was with the sea which entered its double harbor and washed its ramparts, the "stones . . . timbers . . . and dust" appropriately are described as thrown down "in the midst of the water." Though Ezekiel attributes the capture of Tyre to Nebuchadnezzar (see note on Ezekiel 29:18), yet it does not follow that the final destruction of it described is attributed by him to the same monarch. The overthrow of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar was the first link in the long chain of evil the first deadly blow which prepared for, and was the earnest of, the final doom. The change in this verse from the individual conqueror "he," to the general "they," marks that what he did was not the whole, but only paved the way for others to complete the work begun by him. It was to be a progressive work until she was utterly destroyed. Thus the words here answer exactly to what Alexander did. With the "stones, timber," and rubbish of Old Tyre, he built a causeway in seven months to New Tyre on the island and so took it [CURTIUS, 4, 2], 322 B.C.


13. Instead of the joyousness of thy prosperity, a death-like silence shall reign (Isaiah 24:8; Jeremiah 7:34).


14. He concludes in nearly the same words as he began (Ezekiel 26:4, 5). built no more fulfilled as to the mainland Tyre, under Nebuchadnezzar. The insular Tyre recovered partly, after seventy years (Isaiah 23:17, 18), but again suffered under Alexander, then under Antigonus, then under the Saracens at the beginning of the fourteenth century. Now its harbors are choked with sand, precluding all hope of future restoration, "not one entire house is left, and only a few fishermen take shelter in the vaults" [MAUNDRELL]. So accurately has God's word come to pass.


15-21. The impression which the overthrow of Tyre produced on other maritime nations and upon her own colonies, for example, Utica, Carthage, and Tartessus or Tarshish in Spain. isles maritime lands. Even mighty Carthage used to send a yearly offering to the temple of Hercules at Tyre: and the mother city gave high priests to her colonies. Hence the consternation at her fall felt in the widely scattered dependencies with which she was so closely connected by the ties of religion, as well as commercial intercourse. shake metaphorically: "be agitated" (Jeremiah 49:21).


16. come down from their thrones . . . upon the ground "the throne of the mourners" (Job 2:13; Jonah 3:6). princes of the sea are the merchant rulers of Carthage and other colonies of Tyre, who had made themselves rich and powerful by trading on the sea (Isaiah 23:8). clothe . . . with trembling Hebrew, "tremblings." Compare Ezekiel 7:27, "clothed with desolation"; Psalms 132:18. In a public calamity the garment was changed for a mourning garb.


17. inhabited of seafaring men that is, which was frequented by merchants of various sea-bordering lands [GROTIUS]. FAIRBAIRN translates with Peschito, "Thou inhabitant of the seas" (the Hebrew literal meaning). Tyre rose as it were out of the seas as if she got thence her inhabitants, being peopled so closely down to the waters. So Venice was called "the bride of the sea." strong in the sea through her insular position. cause their terror to be on all that haunt it namely, the sea. The Hebrew is rather, "they put their terror upon all her (the city's) inhabitants," that is, they make the name of every Tyrian to be feared [FAIRBAIRN].


18. thy departure Isaiah 23:6, 12 predicts that the Tyrians, in consequence of the siege, should pass over the Mediterranean to the lands bordering on it ("Chittim," "Tarshish," etc.). So Ezekiel here. Accordingly JEROME says that he read in Assyrian histories that, "when the Tyrians saw no hope of escaping, they fled to Carthage or some islands of the Ionian and Aegean Seas" [BISHOP NEWTON]. (See note on Ezekiel 29:18). GROTIUS explains "departure," that is, "in the day when hostages shall be carried away from thee to Babylon." The parallelism to "thy fall" makes me think "departure" must mean "thy end" in general, but with an included allusion to the "departure" of most of her people to her colonies at the fall of the city.


19. great waters appropriate metaphor of the Babylonian hosts, which literally, by breaking down insular Tyre's ramparts, caused the sea to "cover" part of her.


20. the pit Tyre's disappearance is compared to that of the dead placed in their sepulchres and no more seen among the living (compare Ezekiel 32:18, 23; Isaiah 14:11, 15, 19). I shall set glory in the land In contrast to Tyre consigned to the "pit" of death, I shall set glory (that is, My presence symbolized by the Shekinah cloud, the antitype to which shall be Messiah, "the glory as of the only-begotten of the Father," John 1:14; Isaiah 4:2, 5; Zechariah 6:13) in Judah. of the living as opposed to Tyre consigned to the "pit" of death. Judea is to be the land of national and spiritual life, being restored after its captivity (Ezekiel 47:9). FAIRBAIRN loses the antithesis by applying the negative to both clauses, "and that thou be not set as a glory in the land of the living."


21. terror an example of judgment calculated to terrify all evildoers. thou shall be no more Not that there was to be no more a Tyre, but she was no more to be the Tyre that once was: her glory and name were to be no more. As, to Old Tyre, the prophecy was literally fulfilled, not a vestige of it being left.






2. lamentation a funeral dirge, eulogizing her great attributes, to make the contrast the greater between her former and her latter state.


3. situate at the entry of the sea literally, plural, "entrances," that is, ports or havens; referring to the double port of Tyre, at which vessels entered round the north and south ends of the island, so that ships could find a ready entrance from whatever point the wind might blow (compare Ezekiel 28:2). merchant of . . . people for many isles that is, a mercantile emporium of the peoples of many seacoasts, both from the east and from the west (Isaiah 23:3), "a mart of nations." of perfect beauty (Ezekiel 28:12).


4. Tyre, in consonance with her seagirt position, separated by a strait of half a mile from the mainland, is described as a ship built of the best material, and manned with the best mariners and skilful pilots, but at last wrecked in tempestuous seas (Ezekiel 27:26).


5. Senir the Amorite name of Hermon, or the southern height of Anti-libanus (Deuteronomy 3:9); the Sidonian name was Sirion. "All thy . . . boards"; dual in Hebrew, "double -boards," namely, placed in a double order on the two sides of which the ship consisted [VATABLUS]. Or, referring to the two sides or the two ends, the prow and the stern, which every ship has [MUNSTER]. cedars most suited for "masts," from their height and durability.


6. Bashan celebrated for its oaks, as Lebanon was for its cedars. the company of . . . Ashurites the most skilful workmen summoned from Assyria. Rather, as the Hebrew orthography requires, "They have made thy (rowing) benches of ivory inlaid in the daughter of cedars" [MAURER], or, the best boxwood. FAIRBAIRN, with BOCHART, reads the Hebrew two words as one: "Thy plankwork (deck: instead of 'benches,' as the Hebrew is singular ) they made ivory with boxes." English Version, with MAURER'S correction, is simpler. Chittim Cyprus and Macedonia, from which, PLINY tells us, the best boxwood came [GROTIUS].


7. broidered . . . sail The ancients embroidered their sails often at great expense, especially the Egyptians, whose linen, still preserved in mummies, is of the finest texture. Elishah Greece; so called from Elis, a large and ancient division of Peloponnesus. Pausanias says that the best of linen was produced in it, and in no other part of Greece; called by HOMER, Alisium. that which covered thee thy awning.


8. Arvad a small island and city near Phoenicia, now Ruad: its inhabitants are still noted for seafaring habits. thy wise men, O Tyrus . . . thy pilots While the men of Arvad, once thy equals (Genesis 10:18), and the Sidonians, once thy superiors, were employed by thee in subordinate positions as "mariners," thou madest thine own skilled men alone to be commanders and pilots. Implying the political and mercantile superiority of Tyre.


9. Gebal a Phoenician city and region between Beirut and Tripoils, famed for skilled workmen (1 Kings 5:18, Margin; Psalms 83:7). calkers stoppers of chinks in a vessel: carrying on the metaphor as to Tyre. occupy thy merchandise that is, to exchange merchandise with thee.


10. Persia . . . Phut warriors from the extreme east and west. Lud the Lydians of Asia Minor, near the Meander, famed for archery (Isaiah 66:19); rather than those of Ethiopia, as the Lydians of Asia Minor form a kind of intermediate step between Persia and Phut (the Libyans about Cyrene, shielded warriors, Jeremiah 46:9, descended from Phut, son of Ham). hanged . . . shield . . . comeliness Warriors hanged their accoutrements on the walls for ornament. Divested of the metaphor, it means that it was an honor to thee to have so many nations supplying thee with hired soldiers.


11. Gammadims rather, as the Tyrians were Syro-Phoenicians, from a Syriac root, meaning daring, "men of daring" [LUDOVICUS DE DIEU]. It is not likely the keeping of watch "in the towers" would have been entrusted to foreigners. Others take it from a Hebrew root, "a dagger," or short sword (Judges 3:16), short-swordsmen."


12. Tarshish Tartessus in Spain, a country famed for various metals, which were exported to Tyre. Much of the "tin" probably was conveyed by the Phoenicians from Cornwall to Tarshish. traded in thy fairs "did barter with thee" [FAIRBAIRN]; from a root, "to leave," something left in barter for something else.


13. Javan the Ionians or Greeks: for the Ionians of Asia Minor were the first Greeks with whom the Asiatics came in contact. Tubal . . . Meshech the Tibareni and Moschi, in the mountain region between the Black and Caspian Seas. persons of men that is, as slaves. So the Turkish harems are supplied with female slaves from Circassia and Georgia. vessels all kinds of articles. Superior weapons are still manufactured in the Caucasus region.


14. Togarmah Armenia: descended from Gomer (Genesis 10:3). Their mountainous region south of the Caucasus was celebrated for horses. horsemen rather, "riding-horses," as distinct from "horses" for chariots [FAIRBAIRN].


15. Dedan near the Persian Sea: thus an avenue to the commerce of India. Not the Dedan in Arabia (Ezekiel 27:20), as the names in the context here prove, but the Dedan sprung from Cush [BOCHART], (Genesis 10:7). merchandise of thine hand that is, were dependent on thee for trade [FAIRBAIRN]; came to buy the produce of thy hands [GROTIUS]. a present literally, "a reward in return"; a price paid for merchandise. horns of ivory Ivory is so termed from its resemblance to horns. The Hebrew word for "ivory" means "tooth"; so that they cannot have mistaken ivory as if coming from the horns of certain animals, instead of from the tusks of the elephant.


16. "Syria was thy mart for the multitude," etc. For "Syria" the Septuagint reads "Edom." But the Syrians were famed as merchants. occupied old English for "traded"; so in Luke 19:13. agate Others translate, "ruby," "chalcedony," or "pearls."


17. Minnith . . . Pannag names of places in Israel famed for good wheat, wherewith Tyre was supplied (1 Kings 5:9, 11; Ezra 3:7; Acts 12:20); Minnith was formerly an Ammonite city (Judges 11:33). "Pannag" is identified by GROTIUS with "Phenice," the Greek name for "Canaan." "They traded . . . wheat," that is, they supplied thy market with wheat. balm or, "balsam."


18. Helbon or Chalybon, in Syria, now Aleppo; famed for its wines; the Persian monarchs would drink no other.


19. Dan also None of the other places enumerated commence with the copula ("also"; Hebrew, ve ). Moreover, the products specified, "cassia, calamus," apply rather to places in Arabia. Therefore, FAIRBAIRN translates, "Vedan"; perhaps the modern Aden, near the straits of Bab-el-man-deb. GROTIUS refers it to Dana, mentioned by PTOLEMY. Javan not the Greeks of Europe or Asia Minor, but of a Greek settlement in Arabia. going to and fro rather, as Hebrew admits, "from Uzal." This is added to "Javan," to mark which Javan is meant (Genesis 10:27). The metropolis of Arabia Felix, or Yemen; called also Sanaa [BOCHART]. English Version gives a good sense, thus: All peoples, whether near as the Israelite "Dan," or far as the Greeks or "Javan," who were wont to "go to and fro" from their love of traffic, frequented thy marts, bringing bright iron, etc., these products not being necessarily represented as those of Dan or Javan. bright iron Yemen is still famed for its sword blades. calamus aromatic cane.


20. Dedan in Arabia; distinct from the Dedan in Ezekiel 27:15 (see note on Ezekiel 27:15). Descended from Abraham and Keturah (Genesis 25:3) [BOCHART]. precious clothes splendid coverlets.


21. Arabia the nomadic tribes of Arabia, among which Kedar was pre-eminent. occupied with thee literally, "of thy hand," that is, they traded with thee for wares, the product of thy hand (see note on Ezekiel 27:15 and see note on Ezekiel 27:16).


22. Sheba . . . Raamah in Arabia. chief of . . . spices that is, best spices (Deuteronomy 33:15). Obtained from India and conveyed in caravans to Tyre.


23. Haran the dwelling-place of Abraham in Mesopotamia, after he moved from Ur (Genesis 11:31). Canneh Calneh, an Assyrian city on the Tigris; the Ctesiphon of the Greeks (Genesis 10:10). Eden probably a region in Babylonia (see Genesis 2:8). Chilmad a compound; the place designated by PTOLEMY "Gaala of Media." The Chaldee version interprets it of Media. HENDERSON refers it to Carmanda, which XENOPHON describes as a large city beyond the Euphrates.


24. all sorts of things Hebrew, "perfections"; exquisite articles of finery [GROTIUS]. clothes rather, "mantles" or "cloaks"; literally, "wrappings." For "blue," HENDERSON translates, "purple." chests of rich apparel, bound with cords treasures or repositories of damask stuffs, consisting of variegated threads woven together in figures [HENDERSON]. cedar The "chests" were made of cedar, in order to last the longer; and it also keeps off decay and has a sweet odor.


25. sing of thee personification; flay great merchant ships were palpable proofs of thy greatness. Others translate from a different Hebrew root, "were thy (mercantile) travellers." FAIRBAIRN translates, "Were thy walls." But the parallelism to "thou wast glorious" favors English Version, "sing of thee."


26. In contrast to her previous greatness, her downfall is here, by a sudden transition, depicted under the image of a vessel foundering at sea. east wind blowing from Lebanon, the most violent wind in the Mediterranean (Psalms 48:7). A Levanter, as it is called. Nebuchadnezzar is meant. The "sea" is the war with him which the "rowers," or rulers of the state vessel, had "brought" it into, to its ruin.


27. The detailed enumeration implies the utter completeness of the ruin. and in all thy company "even with all thy collected multitude" [HENDERSON].


28. The suburbs the buildings of Tyre on the adjoining continent.


29. So on the downfall of spiritual Babylon (Revelation 18:17, etc.). shall stand upon . . . land being cast out of their ships in which heretofore they prided themselves.


30. against thee rather, "concerning thee."


31. utterly bald literally, "bald with baldness." The Phoenician custom in mourning; which, as being connected with heathenish superstitions, was forbidden to Israel (Deuteronomy 14:1). take up lift up. the destroyed a destroyed one. Literally, (as opposed to its previous bustle of thronging merchants and mariners, Ezekiel 27:27), "one brought to death's stillness." in . . . midst of . . . sea insular Tyre.


33. out of the seas brought on shore out of the ships. filledst didst supply plentifully with wares. enrich . . . kings with the custom dues levied on the wares.


34. In the time when . . . shall . . . shall Now that thou art broken (wrecked) . . . thy merchandise . . . are fallen [MAURER].


35. isles seacoasts.


36. hiss with astonishment; as in 1 Kings 9:8.






2. Because, etc. repeated resumptively in Ezekiel 28:6. The apodosis begins at Ezekiel 28:7. "The prince of Tyrus" at the time was Ithobal, or Ithbaal II; the name implying his close connection with Baal, the Phoenician supreme god, whose representative he was. I am a god, I sit in . . . seat of God . . . the seas As God sits enthroned in His heavenly citadel exempt from all injury, so I sit secure in my impregnable stronghold amidst the stormiest elements, able to control them at will, and make them subserve my interests. The language, though primarily here applied to the king of Tyre, as similar language is to the king of Babylon (Isaiah 14:13, 14), yet has an ulterior and fuller accomplishment in Satan and his embodiment in Antichrist (Daniel 7:25; 11:36, 37; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; Revelation 13:6). This feeling of superhuman elevation in the king of Tyre was fostered by the fact that the island on which Tyre stood was called "the holy island" [SANCONIATHON], being sacred to Hercules, so much so that the colonies looked up to Tyre as the mother city of their religion, as well as of their political existence. The Hebrew for "God" is El, that is, "the Mighty One." yet, etc. keen irony. set thine heart as . . . heart of God Thou thinkest of thyself as if thou wert God.


3. Ezekiel ironically alludes to Ithbaal's overweening opinion of the wisdom of himself and the Tyrians, as though superior to that of Daniel, whose fame had reached even Tyre as eclipsing the Chaldean sages. "Thou art wiser," namely, in thine own opinion (Zechariah 9:2). no secret namely, forgetting riches (Ezekiel 28:4). that they can hide that is, that can be hidden.


5. (Psalms 62:10).


6. Because, etc. resumptive of Ezekiel 28:2.


7. therefore apodosis. strangers . . . terrible of the nations the Chaldean foreigners noted for their ferocity (Ezekiel 30:11; 31:12). against the beauty of thy wisdom that is, against thy beautiful possessions acquired by thy wisdom on which thou pridest thyself (Ezekiel 28:3-5). defile thy brightness obscure the brightness of thy kingdom.


8. the pit that is, the bottom of the sea; the image being that of one conquered in a sea-fight. the deaths plural, as various kinds of deaths are meant (Jeremiah 16:4). of them . . . slain literally, "pierced through." Such deaths as those pierced with many wounds die.


9. yet say that is, still say; referring to Ezekiel 28:2. but, etc. But thy blasphemous boastings shall be falsified, and thou shalt be shown to be but man, and not God, in the hand (at the mercy) of Him.


10. deaths of . . . uncircumcised that is, such a death as the uncircumcised or godless heathen deserve; and perhaps, also, such as the uncircumcised inflict, a great ignominy in the eyes of a Jew (1 Samuel 31:4); a fit retribution on him who had scoffed at the circumcised Jews.


12. sealest up the sum literally, "Thou art the one sealing the sum of perfection." A thing is sealed when completed (Daniel 9:24). "The sum" implies the full measure of beauty, from a Hebrew root, "to measure." The normal man one formed after accurate rule.


13. in Eden The king of Tyre is represented in his former high state (contrasted with his subsequent downfall), under images drawn from the primeval man in Eden, the type of humanity in its most Godlike form. garden of God the model of ideal loveliness (Ezekiel 31:8, 9; 36:35). In the person of the king of Tyre a new trial was made of humanity with the greatest earthly advantages. But as in the case of Adam, the good gifts of God were only turned into ministers to pride and self. every precious stone so in Eden (Genesis 2:12), "gold, bdellium, and the onyx stone." So the king of Tyre was arrayed in jewel-bespangled robes after the fashion of Oriental monarchs. The nine precious stones here mentioned answer to nine of the twelve (representing the twelve tribes) in the high priest's breastplate (Exodus 39:10-13; Revelation 21:14, 19-21). Of the four rows of three in each, the third is omitted in the Hebrew, but is supplied in the Septuagint. In this, too, there is an ulterior reference to Antichrist, who is blasphemously to arrogate the office of our divine High Priest (Zechariah 6:13). tabrets tambourines. pipes literally, "holes" in musical pipes or flutes. created that is, in the day of thine accession to the throne. Tambourines and all the marks of joy were ready prepared for thee ("in thee," that is, "with and for thee"). Thou hadst not, like others, to work thy way to the throne through arduous struggles. No sooner created than, like Adam, thou wast surrounded with the gratifications of Eden. FAIRBAIRN, for "pipes," translates, "females" (having reference to Genesis 1:27), that is, musician-women. MAURER explains the Hebrew not as to music, but as to the setting and mounting of the gems previously mentioned.


14. anointed cherub GESENIUS translates from an Aramaic root, "extended cherub." English Version, from a Hebrew root, is better. "The cherub consecrated to the Lord by the anointing oil" [FAIRBAIRN]. covereth The imagery employed by Ezekiel as a priest is from the Jewish temple, wherein the cherubim overshadowed the mercy seat, as the king of Tyre, a demi-god in his own esteem, extended his protection over the interests of Tyre. The cherub an ideal compound of the highest kinds of animal existence and the type of redeemed man in his ultimate state of perfection is made the image of the king of Tyre, as if the beau ideal of humanity. The pretensions of Antichrist are the ulterior reference, of whom the king of Tyre is a type. Compare "As God . . . in the temple of God" (2 Thessalonians 2:4). I have set thee not thou set thyself (Proverbs 8:16; Romans 13:1). upon the holy mountain of God Zion, following up the image. in . . . midst of . . . stones of fire In ambitious imagination he stood in the place of God, "under whose feet was, as it were, a pavement of sapphire," while His glory was like "devouring fire" (Exodus 24:10, 17).


15. perfect prosperous [GROTIUS], and having no defect. So Hiram was a sample of the Tyrian monarch in his early days of wisdom and prosperity (1 Kings 5:7, etc.). till iniquity . . . in thee Like the primeval man thou hast fallen by abusing God's gifts, and so hast provoked God's wrath.


16. filled the midst of thee that is, they have filled the midst of the city; he as the head of the state being involved in the guilt of the state, which he did not check, but fostered. cast thee as profane no longer treated as sacred, but driven out of the place of sanctity (see Ezekiel 28:14) which thou hast occupied (compare Psalms 89:39).


17. brightness thy splendor. lay thee before kings as an example of God's wrath against presumptuous pride.


18. thy sanctuaries that is, the holy places, attributed to the king of Tyre in Ezekiel 28:14, as his ideal position. As he "profaned" it, so God will "profane" him (Ezekiel 28:16). fire . . . devour As he abused his supposed elevation amidst "the stones of fire" (Ezekiel 28:16), so God will make His "fire" to "devour" him.


21. Zidon famous for its fishery (from a root, Zud, "to fish"); and afterwards for its wide extended commerce; its artistic elegance was proverbial. Founded by Canaan's first-born (Genesis 10:15). Tyre was an offshoot from it, so that it was involved in the same overthrow by the Chaldeans as Tyre. It is mentioned separately, because its idolatry (Ashtaroth, Tammuz, or Adonis) infected Israel more than that of Tyre did (Ezekiel 8:14; Judges 10:6; 1 Kings 11:33). The notorious Jezebel was a daughter of the Zidonian king.


22. shall be sanctified in her when all nations shall see that I am the Holy Judge in the vengeance that I will inflict on her for sin.


24. no more . . . brier . . . unto . . . Israel as the idolatrous nations left in Canaan (among which Zidon is expressly specified in the limits of Asher, Judges 1:31) had been (Numbers 33:55; Joshua 23:13). "A brier," first ensnaring the Israelites in sin, and then being made the instrument of punishing them. pricking literally, "causing bitterness." The same Hebrew is translated "fretting" (Leviticus 13:51, 52). The wicked are often called "thorns" (2 Samuel 23:6).


25, 26. Fulfilled in part at the restoration from Babylon, when Judaism, so far from being merged in heathenism, made inroads by conversions on the idolatry of surrounding nations. The full accomplishment is yet future, when Israel, under Christ, shall be the center of Christendom; of which an earnest was given in the woman from the coasts of Tyre and Sidon who sought the Saviour (Matthew 15:21, 24, 26-28; compare Isaiah 11:12). dwell safely (Jeremiah 23:6). CHAPTER 29



            This is the last of the world kingdoms against which Ezekiel's prophecies are directed, and occupies the largest space in them, namely, the next four chapters. Though farther off than Tyre, it exercised a more powerful influence on Israel.


2. Pharaoh a common name of all the kings of Egypt, meaning "the sun"; or, as others say, a "crocodile," which was worshipped in parts of Egypt (compare Ezekiel 29:3). Hophra or Apries was on the throne at this time. His reign began prosperously. He took Gaza (Jeremiah 47:1) and Zidon and made himself master of Phoenicia and Palestine, recovering much that was lost to Egypt by the victory of Nebuchadnezzar at Carchemish (2 Kings 24:7; Jeremiah 46:2), in the fourth year of Jehoiakim [WILKINSON, Ancient Egypt, 1.169]. So proudly secure because of his successes for twenty-five years did he feel, that he said not even a god could deprive him of his kingdom [HERODOTUS, 2.169]. Hence the appropriateness of the description of him in Ezekiel 29:3. No mere human sagacity could have enabled Ezekiel to foresee Egypt's downfall in the height of its prosperity. There are four divisions of these prophecies; the first in the tenth year of Ezekiel's captivity; the last in the twelfth. Between the first and second comes one of much later date, not having been given till the twenty-seventh year (Ezekiel 29:17; 30:19), but placed there as appropriate to the subject matter. Pharaoh-hophra, or Apries, was dethroned and strangled, and Amasis substituted as king, by Nebuchadnezzar (compare Jeremiah 44:30). The Egyptian priests, from national vanity, made no mention to HERODOTUS of the Egyptian loss of territory in Syria through Nebuchadnezzar, of which JOSEPHUS tells us, but attributed the change in the succession from Apries to Amasis solely to the Egyptian soldiery. The civil war between the two rivals no doubt lasted several years, affording an opportunity to Nebuchadnezzar of interfering and of elevating the usurper Amasis, on condition of his becoming tributary to Babylon [WILKINSON]. Compare Jeremiah 43:10-12, and see note on Jeremiah 43:13, for another view of the grounds of interference of Nebuchadnezzar.


3. dragon Hebrew, tanim, any large aquatic animal, here the crocodile, which on Roman coins is the emblem of Egypt. lieth restest proudly secure. his rivers the mouths, branches, and canals of the Nile, to which Egypt owed its fertility.


4. hooks in thy jaws (Isaiah 37:29; compare Job 41:1, 2). Amasis was the "hook." In the Assyrian sculptures prisoners are represented with a hook in the underlip, and a cord from it held by the king. cause . . . fish . . . stick unto . . . scales Pharaoh, presuming on his power as if he were God (Ezekiel 29:3, "I have made it"), wished to stand in the stead of God as defender of the covenant-people, his motive being, not love to them, but rivalry with Babylon. He raised the siege of Jerusalem, but it was only for a time (compare Ezekiel 29:6; Jeremiah 37:5, 7-10); ruin overtook not only them, but himself. As the fish that clung to the horny scales of the crocodile, the lord of the Nile, when he was caught, shared his fate, so the adherents of Pharaoh, lord of Egypt, when he was overthrown by Amasis, should share his fate.


5. wilderness captivity beyond thy kingdom. The expression is used perhaps to imply retribution in kind. As Egypt pursued after Israel, saying, "The wilderness hath shut them in" (Exodus 14:3), so she herself shall be brought into a wilderness state. open fields literally "face of the field." not be brought together As the crocodile is not, when caught, restored to the river, so no remnant of thy routed army shall be brought together, and rallied, after its defeat in the wilderness. Pharaoh led an army against Cyrene in Africa, in support of Aricranes, who had been stripped of his kingdom by the Cyrenians. The army perished and Egypt rebelled against him [JUNIUS]. But the reference is mainly to the defeat by Nebuchadnezzar. beasts . . . fowls hostile and savage men.


6. staff of reed to . . . Israel alluding to the reeds on the banks of the Nile, which broke if one leaned upon them (see note on Ezekiel 29:4; Isaiah 36:6). All Israel's dependence on Egypt proved hurtful instead of beneficial (Isaiah 30:1-5).


7. hand or handle of the reed. rend . . . shoulder by the splinters on which the shoulder or arm would fall, on the support failing the hand. madest . . . loins . . . at a stand that is, made them to be disabled. MAURER somewhat similarly (referring to a kindred Arabic form), "Thou hast stricken both their loins." FAIRBAIRN, not so well, "Thou lettest all their loins stand," that is, by themselves, bereft of the support which they looked for from thee.


8. a sword Nebuchadnezzar's army (Ezekiel 29:19). Also Amasis and the Egyptian revolters who after Pharaoh-hophra's discomfiture in Cyrene dethroned and strangled him, having defeated him in a battle fought at Memphis [JUNIUS].


9. I am the Lord in antithesis to the blasphemous boast repeated here from Ezekiel 29:3, "The river is mine, and I have made it."


10. from the tower of Syene GROTIUS translates, "from Migdol (a fortress near Pelusium on the north of Suez) to Syene (in the farthest south)"; that is, from one end of Egypt to the other. So "from Migdol to Syene," Ezekiel 30:6, Margin. However, English Version rightly refers Syene to Seveneh, that is, Sebennytus, in the eastern delta of the Nile, the capital of the Lower Egyptian kings. The Sebennyte Pharaohs, with the help of the Canaanites, who, as shepherds or merchants, ranged the desert of Suez, extended their borders beyond the narrow province east of the delta, to which they had been confined by the Pharaohs of Upper Egypt. The defeated party, in derision, named the Sebennyte or Lower Egyptians foreigners and shepherd-kings (a shepherd being an abomination in Egypt, Genesis 46:34). They were really a native dynasty. Thus, in English Version, "Ethiopia" in the extreme south is rightly contrasted with Sebennytus or Syene in the north.


11. forty years answering to the forty years in which the Israelites, their former bondsmen, wandered in "the wilderness" (compare Note, see note on Ezekiel 29:5). JEROME remarks the number forty is one often connected with affliction and judgment. The rains of the flood in forty days brought destruction on the world. Moses, Elias, and the Saviour fasted forty days. The interval between Egypt's overthrow by Nebuchadnezzar and the deliverance by Cyrus, was about forty years. The ideal forty years' wilderness state of social and political degradation, rather than a literal non-passing of man or beast for that term, is mainly intended (so Ezekiel 4:6; Isaiah 19:2, 11).


12. As Israel passed through a term of wilderness discipline (compare Ezekiel 20:35, etc.), which was in its essential features to be repeated again, so it was to be with Egypt [FAIRBAIRN]. Some Egyptians were to be carried to Babylon, also many "scattered" in Arabia and Ethiopia through fear; but mainly the "scattering" was to be the dissipation of their power, even though the people still remained in their own land.


13. (Jeremiah 46:26).


14. Pathros the Thehaiti, or Upper Egypt, which had been especially harassed by Nebuchadnezzar (Nahum 3:8, 10). The oldest part of Egypt as to civilization and art. The Thebaid was anciently called "Egypt" [ARISTOTLE]. Therefore it is called the "land of the Egyptians' birth" (Margin, for "habitation"). base kingdom Under Amasis it was made dependent on Babylon; humbled still more under Cambyses; and though somewhat raised under the Ptolemies, never has it regained its ancient pre-eminence.


16. Egypt, when restored, shall be so circumscribed in power that it shall be no longer an object of confidence to Israel, as formerly; for example, as when, relying on it, Israel broke faith with Nebuchadnezzar (Ezekiel 17:13, 15, 16). which bringeth their iniquity to remembrance, when they shall look after them rather, "while they (the Israelites) look to (or, turn after ) them" [HENDERSON]. Israel's looking to Egypt, rather than to God, causes their iniquity (unfaithfulness to the covenant) to be remembered by God.


17. The departure from the chronological order occurs here only, among the prophecies as to foreign nations, in order to secure greater unity of subject.


18. every head . . . bald, . . . shoulder . . . peeled with carrying baskets of earth and stones for the siege works. no wages . . . for the service that is, in proportion to it and the time and labor which he expended on the siege of Tyre. Not that he actually failed in the siege (JEROME expressly states, from Assyrian histories, that Nebuchadnezzar succeeded); but, so much of the Tyrian resources had been exhausted, or transported to her colonies in ships, that little was left to compensate Nebuchadnezzar for his thirteen year's siege.


19. multitude not as FAIRBAIRN, "store"; but, he shall take away a multitude of captives out of Egypt. The success of Nebuchadnezzar is implied in Tyre's receiving a king from Babylon, probably one of her captives there, Merbal. take her spoil . . . prey literally, "spoil her spoil, prey her prey," that is, as she spoiled other nations, so shall she herself be a spoil to Babylon.


20. because they wrought for me the Chaldeans, fulfilling My will as to Tyre (compare Jeremiah 25:9).


21. In the evil only, not in the good, was Egypt to be parallel to Israel. The very downfall of Egypt will be the signal for the rise of Israel, because of God's covenant with the latter. I cause the horn of . . . Israel to bud (Psalms 132:17). I will cause its ancient glory to revive: an earnest of Israel's full glory under Messiah, the son of David (Luke 1:69). Even in Babylon an earnest was given of this in Daniel (Daniel 6:2) and Jeconiah (Jeremiah 52:31). I will give thee . . . opening of . . . mouth When thy predictions shall have come to pass, thy words henceforth shall be more heeded (compare Ezekiel 24:27).





            Two distinct messages: (1) At Ezekiel 30:1-9, a repetition of Ezekiel 29:1-16, with fuller details of lifelike distinctness. The date is probably not long after that mentioned in Ezekiel 29:17, on the eve of Nebuchadnezzar's march against Egypt after subjugating Tyre. (2) A vision relating directly to Pharaoh and the overthrow of his kingdom; communicated at an earlier date, the seventh of the first month of the eleventh year. Not a year after the date in Ezekiel 29:1, and three months before the taking of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar.


2. Woe worth the day! that is, Alas for the day!


3. the time of the heathen namely, for taking vengeance on them. The judgment on Egypt is the beginning of a world-wide judgment on all the heathen enemies of God (Joel 1:15; 2:1, 2; 3; Obadiah 1:15).


4. pain literally, "pangs with trembling as of a woman in childbirth."


5. the mingled people the mercenary troops of Egypt from various lands, mostly from the interior of Africa (compare Ezekiel 27:10; Jeremiah 25:20, 24; 46:9, 21). Chub the people named Kufa on the monuments [HAVERNICK], a people considerably north of Palestine [WILKINSON]; Coba or Chobat, a city of Mauritania [MAURER]. men of the land that is in league too definite an expression to mean merely, "men in league" with Egypt; rather, "sons of the land of the covenant," that is, the Jews who migrated to Egypt and carried Jeremiah with them (Jeremiah 42:1-44:30). Even they shall not escape (Jeremiah 42:22; 44:14).


6. from the tower of Syene (see note on Ezekiel 29:10).


7. in the midst of . . . countries . . . desolate Egypt shall fare no better than they (Ezekiel 29:10).


9. messengers . . . in ships to . . . Ethiopians (Isaiah 18:1, 2). The cataracts interposing between them and Egypt should not save them. Egyptians "fleeing from before Me" in My execution of judgment, as "messengers" in "skiffs" ("vessels of bulrushes," Isaiah 18:2) shall go up the Nile as far as navigable, to announce the advance of the Chaldeans. as in the day of Egypt The day of Ethiopia's "pain" shall come shortly, as Egypt's day came.


10. the multitude the large population.


12. rivers the artificial canals made from the Nile for irrigation. The drying up of these would cause scarcity of grain, and so prepare the way for the invaders (Isaiah 19:5-10).


13. Noph Memphis, the capital of Middle Egypt, and the stronghold of "idols." Though no record exists of Nebuchadnezzar's "destroying" these, we know from HERODOTUS and others, that Cambyses took Pelusium, the key of Egypt, by placing before his army dogs, cats, etc., all held sacred in Egypt, so that no Egyptian would use any weapon against them. He slew Apis, the sacred ox, and burnt other idols of Egypt. no more a prince referring to the anarchy that prevailed in the civil wars between Apries and Amasis at the time of Nebuchadnezzar's invasion. There shall no more be a prince of the land of Egypt, ruling the whole country; or, no independent prince.


14. Pathros Upper Egypt, with "No" or Thebes its capital (famed for its stupendous buildings, of which grand ruins remain), in antithesis to Zoan or Tanis, a chief city in Lower Egypt, within the Delta.


15. Sin that is, Pelusium, the frontier fortress on the northeast, therefore called "the strength (that is, the key) of Egypt." It stands in antithesis to No or Thebes at the opposite end of Egypt; that is, I will afflict Egypt from one end to the other.


16. distresses daily MAURER translates, "enemies during the day," that is, open enemies who do not wait for the covert of night to make their attacks (compare Jeremiah 6:4; 15:8). However, the Hebrew, though rarely, is sometimes rendered (see Psalms 13:2) as in English Version.


17. Aven meaning "vanity" or "iniquity": applied, by a slight change of the Hebrew name, to On or Heliopolis, in allusion to its idolatry. Here stood the temple of the sun, whence it was called in Hebrew, Beth-shemesh (Jeremiah 43:13). The Egyptian hieroglyphics call it, Re Athom, the sun, the father of the gods, being impersonate in Athom or Adam, the father of mankind. Pi-beseth that is, Bubastis, in Lower Egypt, near the Pelusiac branch of the Nile: notorious for the worship of the goddess of the same name (Coptic, Pasht ), the granite stones of whose temple still attest its former magnificence. these cities rather, as the Septuagint, "the women," namely, of Aven and Pi-beseth, in antithesis to "the young men." So in Ezekiel 30:18, "daughters shall go into captivity" [MAURER].


18. Tehaphnehes called from the queen of Egypt mentioned in 1 Kings 11:19. The same as Daphne, near Pelusium, a royal residence of the Pharaohs (Jeremiah 43:7, 9). Called Hanes Isaiah 30:4). break . . . the yokes of Egypt that is, the tyrannical supremacy which she exercised over other nations. Compare "bands of their yoke" (Ezekiel 34:7). a cloud namely, of calamity.


20. Here begins the earlier vision, not long after that in the twenty-ninth chapter, about three months before the taking of Jerusalem, as to Pharaoh and his kingdom.


21. broken . . . arm of Pharaoh (Psalms 37:17; Jeremiah 48:25). Referring to the defeat which Pharaoh-hophra sustained from the Chaldeans, when trying to raise the siege of Jerusalem (Jeremiah 37:5, 7); and previous to the deprivation of Pharaoh-necho of all his conquests from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates (2 Kings 24:7; Jeremiah 46:2); also to the Egyptian disaster in Cyrene.


22. arms Not only the "one arm" broken already (Ezekiel 30:21) was not to be healed, but the other two should be broken. Not a corporal wound, but a breaking of the power of Pharaoh is intended. cause . . . sword to fall out of . . . hand deprive him of the resources of making war.





            Not that Egypt was, like Assyria, utterly to cease to be, but it was, like Assyria, to lose its prominence in the empire of the world.


1. third month two months later than the prophecy delivered in Ezekiel 30:20.


2. Whom art thou like The answer is, Thou art like the haughty king of Assyria; as he was overthrown by the Chaldeans, so shalt thou be by the same.


3. He illustrates the pride and the consequent overthrow of the Assyrian, that Egypt may the better know what she must expect. cedar in Lebanon often eighty feet high, and the diameter of the space covered by its boughs still greater: the symmetry perfect. Compare the similar image (Ezekiel 17:3; Daniel 4:20-22). with a shadowing shroud with an overshadowing thicket. top . . . among . . . thick boughs rather [HENGSTENBERG], "among the clouds." But English Version agrees better with the Hebrew. The top, or topmost shoot, represents the king; the thick boughs, the large resources of the empire.


4. waters . . . little rivers the Tigris with its branches and "rivulets," or "conduits" for irrigation, the source of Assyria's fertility. "The deep" is the ever flowing water, never dry. Metaphorically, for Assyria's resources, as the "conduits" are her colonies.


5. when he shot forth because of the abundant moisture which nourished him in shooting forth. But see Margin .


6. fowls . . . made . . . nests in . . . boughs so Ezekiel 17:23; Daniel 4:12. The gospel kingdom shall gather all under its covert, for their good and for the glory of God, which the world kingdoms did for evil and for self-aggrandizement (Matthew 13:32).


8. cedars . . . could not hide him could not outtop him. No other king eclipsed him. were not like were not comparable to. garden of God As in the case of Tyre (Ezekiel 28:13), the imagery, that is applied to the Assyrian king, is taken from Eden; peculiarly appropriate, as Eden was watered by rivers that afterwards watered Assyria (Genesis 2:10-14). This cedar seemed to revive in itself all the glories of paradise, so that no tree there outtopped it.


9. I . . . made him It was all due to My free grace.


10. thou . . . he The change of persons is because the language refers partly to the cedar, partly to the person signified by the cedar.


11. Here the literal supersedes the figurative. shall surely deal with him according to his own pleasure, and according to the Assyrian's (Sardanapalus) desert. Nebuchadnezzar is called "the mighty one" (El, a name of God), because he was God's representative and instrument of judgment (Daniel 2:37, 38).


12. from his shadow under which they had formerly dwelt as their covert (Ezekiel 31:6).


13. Birds and beasts shall insult over his fallen trunk.


14. trees by the waters that is, that are plentifully supplied by the waters: nations abounding in resources. stand up in their height that is, trust in their height: stand upon it as their ground of confidence. FAIRBAIRN points the Hebrew differently, so as for "their trees," to translate, "(And that none that drink water may stand) on themselves, (because of their greatness)." But the usual reading is better, as Assyria and the confederate states throughout are compared to strong trees. The clause, "All that drink water," marks the ground of the trees' confidence "in their height," namely, that they have ample sources of supply. MAURER, retaining the same Hebrew, translates, "that neither their terebinth trees may stand up in their height, nor all (the other trees) that drink water." to . . . nether . . . earth . . . pit (Ezekiel 32:18; Psalms 82:7).


15. covered the deep as mourners cover their heads in token of mourning, "I made the deep that watered the cedar" to wrap itself in mourning for him. The waters of the deep are the tributary peoples of Assyria (Revelation 17:15). fainted literally, were "faintness" (itself); more forcible than the verb.


16. hell Sheol or Hades, the unseen world: equivalent to, "I cast him into oblivion" (compare Isaiah 14:9-11). shall be comforted because so great a king as the Assyrian is brought down to a level with them. It is a kind of consolation to the wretched to have companions in misery.


17. his arm, that dwelt under his shadow those who were the helpers or tool of his tyranny, and therefore enjoyed his protection (for example, Syria and her neighbors). These were sure to share her fate. Compare the same phrase as to the Jews living under the protection of their king (Lamentations 4:20); both alike "making flesh their arm, and in heart departing from the Lord" (Jeremiah 17:5).


18. Application of the parabolic description of Assyria to the parallel case of Egypt. "All that has been said of the Assyrian consider as said to thyself. To whom art thou so like, as thou art to the Assyrian? To none." The lesson on a gigantic scale of Eden-like privileges abused to pride and sin by the Assyrian, as in the case of the first man in Eden, ending in ruin, was to be repeated in Egypt's case. For the unchangeable God governs the world on the same unchangeable principles. thou shall lie in . . . uncircumcised As circumcision was an object of mocking to thee, thou shall lie in the midst of the uncircumcised, slain by their sword [GROTIUS]. Retribution in kind (Ezekiel 28:10). This is Pharaoh Pharaoh's end shall be the same humiliating one as I have depicted the Assyrian's to have been. "This" is demonstrative, as if he were pointing with the finger to Pharaoh lying prostrate, a spectacle to all, as on the shore of the Red Sea (Exodus 14:30, 31).






1. The twelfth year from the carrying away of Jehoiachin; Jerusalem was by this time overthrown, and Amasis was beginning his revolt against Pharaoh-hophra.


2. Pharaoh "Phra" in Burmah, signifies the king, high priest, and idol. whale rather, any monster of the waters; here, the crocodile of the Nile. Pharaoh is as a lion on dry land, a crocodile in the waters; that is, an object of terror everywhere. camest forth with thy rivers "breakest forth" [FAIRBAIRN]. The antithesis of "seas" and "rivers" favors GROTIUS rendering, "Thou camest forth from the sea into the rivers"; that is, from thy own empire into other states. However, English Version is favored by the "thy": thou camest forth with thy rivers (that is, with thy forces) and with thy feet didst fall irrecoverably; so Israel, once desolate, troubles the waters (that is, neighboring states).


3. with a company of many people namely, the Chaldeans (Ezekiel 29:3, 4; Hosea 7:12). my net for they are My instrument.


4. leave thee upon the land as a fish drawn out of the water loses all its strength, so Pharaoh (in Ezekiel 32:3, compared to a water monster) shall be (Ezekiel 29:5).


5. thy height thy hugeness [FAIRBAIRN]. The great heap of corpses of thy forces, on which thou pridest thyself. "Height" may refer to mental elevation, as well as bodily [VATABLUS].


6. land wherein thou swimmest Egypt: the land watered by the Nile, the the source of its fertility, wherein thou swimmest (carrying on the image of the crocodile, that is, wherein thou dost exercise thy wanton power at will). Irony. The land shall still afford seas to swim in, but they shall be seas of blood. Alluding to the plague (Exodus 7:19; Revelation 8:8). HAVERNICK translates, "I will water the land with what flows from thee, even thy blood, reaching to the mountains": "with thy blood overflowing even to the mountains." Perhaps this is better.


7. put thee out extinguish thy light (Job 18:5). Pharaoh is represented as a bright star, at the extinguishing of whose light in the political sky the whole heavenly host is shrouded in sympathetic darkness. Here, too, as in Ezekiel 32:6, there is an allusion to the supernatural darkness sent formerly (Exodus 10:21-23). The heavenly bodies are often made images of earthly dynasties (Isaiah 13:10; Matthew 24:29).


9. thy destruction that is tidings of thy destruction (literally, "thy breakage") carried by captive and dispersed Egyptians "among the nations" [GROTIUS]; or, thy broken people, resembling one great fracture, the ruins of what they had been [FAIRBAIRN].


10. brandish my sword before them literally, "in their faces," or sight.


13. (See note on Ezekiel 29:11). The picture is ideally true, not to be interpreted by the letter. The political ascendency of Egypt was to cease with the Chaldean conquest [FAIRBAIRN]. Henceforth Pharaoh must figuratively no longer trouble the waters by man or beast, that is, no longer was he to flood other peoples with his overwhelming forces.


14. make their waters deep rather, "make . . . to subside "; literally, "sink" [FAIRBAIRN]. like oil emblem of quietness. No longer shall they descend violently on other countries as the overflowing Nile, but shall be still and sluggish in political action.


16. As in Ezekiel 19:14. This is a prophetical lamentation; yet so it shall come to pass [GROTIUS].


17. The second lamentation for Pharaoh. This funeral dirge in imagination accompanies him to the unseen world. Egypt personified in its political head is ideally represented as undergoing the change by death to which man is liable. Expressing that Egypt's supremacy is no more, a thing of the past, never to be again. the month the twelfth month (Ezekiel 32:1); fourteen days after the former vision.


18. cast them down that is predict that they shall be cast down (so Jeremiah 1:10). The prophet's word was God's, and carried with it its own fulfilment. daughters of . . . nations that is the nations with their peoples. Egypt is to share the fate of other ancient nations once famous, now consigned to oblivion: Elam (Ezekiel 32: 24), Meshech, etc. (Ezekiel 32:26), Edom (Ezekiel 32:29), Zidon (Ezekiel 32:30).


19. Whom dost thou pass in beauty? Beautiful as thou art, thou art not more so than other nations, which nevertheless have perished. go down, etc. to the nether world, where all "beauty" is speedily marred.


20. she is delivered to the sword namely, by God. draw her as if addressing her executioners: drag her forth to death.


21. (Ezekiel 31:16). Ezekiel has before his eyes Isaiah 14:9, etc. shall speak to him with "him" join "with them that help him"; shall speak to him and his helpers with a taunting welcome, as now one of themselves.


22. her . . . his The abrupt change of gender is, because Ezekiel has in view at one time the kingdom (feminine), at another the monarch. "Asshur," or Assyria, is placed first in punishment, as being first in guilt.


23. in the sides of the pit Sepulchres in the East were caves hollowed out of the rock, and the bodies were laid in niches formed at the sides. MAURER needlessly departs from the ordinary meaning, and translates, "extremities" (compare Isaiah 14:13, 15). which caused terror They, who alive were a terror to others, are now, in the nether world, themselves a terrible object to behold.


24. Elam placed next, as having been an auxiliary to Assyria. Its territory lay in Persia. In Abraham's time an independent kingdom (Genesis 14:1). Famous for its bowmen (Isaiah 22:6). borne their shame the just retribution of their lawless pride. Destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (Jeremiah 49:34-38).


25. a bed a sepulchral niche. all . . . slain by . . . sword, etc. (Ezekiel 32:21, 23, 24). The very monotony of the phraseology gives to the dirge an awe-inspiring effect.


26. Meshech, Tubal northern nations: the Moschi and Tibareni, between the Black and Caspian Seas. HERODOTUS [3.94], mentions them as a subjugated people, tributaries to Darius Hystaspes (see Ezekiel 27:13).


27. they shall not lie with the mighty that is, they shall not have separate tombs such as mighty conquerors have: but shall all be heaped together in one pit, as is the case with the vanquished [GROTIUS]. HAVERNICK reads it interrogatively, "Shall they not lie with the mighty that are fallen?" But English Version is supported by the parallel (Isaiah 14:18, 19), to which Ezekiel refers, and which represents them as not lying as mighty kings lie in a grave, but cast out of one, as a carcass trodden under foot. with . . . weapons of war alluding to the custom of burying warriors with their arms (1 Maccabees 13:29). Though honored by the laying of "their swords under their heads," yet the punishment of "their iniquities shall be upon their bones." Their swords shall thus attest their shame, not their glory (Matthew 26:52), being the instruments of their violence, the penalty of which they are paying.


28. Yea, thou Thou, too, Egypt, like them, shalt lie as one vanquished.


29. princes Edom was not only governed by kings, but by subordinate "princes" ox "dukes" (Genesis 36:40). with their might notwithstanding their might, they shall be brought down (Isaiah 34:5, 10-17; Jeremiah 49:7, 13-18). lie with the uncircumcised Though Edom was circumcised, being descended from Isaac, he shall lie with the uncircumcised; much more shall Egypt, who had no hereditary right to circumcision.


30. princes of the north Syria, which is still called by the Arabs the north; or the Tyrians, north of Palestine, conquered by Nebuchadnezzar (Ezekiel 26:1-28:26), [GROTIUS]. Zidonians who shared the fate of Tyre (Ezekiel 28:21). with their terror they are ashamed of their might that is, notwithstanding the terror which they inspired in their contemporaries. "Might" is connected by MAURER thus, "Notwithstanding the terror which resulted from their might."


31. comforted with the melancholy satisfaction of not being alone, but of having other kingdoms companions in his downfall. This shall be his only comfort a very poor one!


32. my terror the Margin or Keri. The Hebrew text or Chetib is "his terror," which gives good sense (Ezekiel 32:25, 30). "My terror" implies that God puts His terror on Pharaoh's multitude, as they put "their terror" on others, for example, under Pharaoh-necho on Judea. As "the land of the living" was the scene of "their terror," so it shall be God's; especially in Judea, He will display His glory to the terror of Israel's foes (Ezekiel 26:20). In Israel's case the judgment is temporary, ending in their future restoration under Messiah. In the case of the world kingdoms which flourished for a time, they fall to rise no more.




John Calvin's Commentary


Unfortunately, Calvin died before he could complete his marvelous commentary on Ezekiel he stopped with Chapter 20.


Calvin's planned commentary outline of this section:




Section 1. Against the Ammonites, Ezekiel 25:1-7

Section 2. Against the Moabites, Ezekiel 25:8-11

Section 3. Against the Edomites, Ezekiel 25:12-14,

Section 4. Against the Philistines, Ezekiel 25:15-17

Section 5. Against Tyre, through Ezekiel 26, Ezekiel 27, and Ezekiel 28:1-19.

Section 6. Against Zidon, Ezekiel 28:20-26

Section 7. Against Pharaoh, Ezekiel 29:1-7

Section 8. Against Egypt, Ezekiel 29:8-21

Section 9. Against Etillopia, Ezekiel 30:1-5

Section 10. Against the Upholders of Egypt, Ezekiel 30:6-19

Section 11. Against Pharaoh, Ezekiel 30:20-26

Section 12. Assyria as a Cedar of Lebanon, Ezekiel 31:1-9

Section 13. Its Fall and Destruction, Ezekiel 31:10-18

Section 14. A Bitter Lamentation over Egypt, Ezekiel 32:1-21

Section 15. A Bitter Lamentation over Assyria., Ezekiel 32:22, 23

Section 16. A Bitter Lamentation over Elam, Ezekiel 32:24, 25

Section 17. A Bitter Lamentation over Meshech and Tubal, Ezekiel 32:26-28

Section 18. A Bitter Lamentation over Edom, Ezekiel 32:29-32

         These Utterances are all most vividly and graphically portrayed. Allegories, Metaphors, and Parables are most appropriately interspersed with fiery Denunciations and awful Threatenings in consequence of gross iniquities.



After finishing this last Lecture, that most illustrious man, JOHN CALVIN, the Divine, who had previously been sick, then began to be so much weaker that he was compelled to recline on a couch, and could no longer proceed with the explanation of EZEKIEL. This accounts for his stopping at the close of the Twentieth Chapter, and not finishing the work so auspiciously begun. Nothing remains, kind Reader, but that you receive most favorably and graciously what is now sent forth to the world.


Ezekiel References


Hermeneia: Ezekiel I and Ezekiel II, Walther Zimmerli


The New American Commentary: Ezekiel, Lamar Eugene Cooper, Sr.


Word Biblical Commentary: Ezekiel 1-19 & 20-48, Leslie C. Allen


The Book of Ezekiel: Chapters 1-24 and The Book of Ezekiel: Chapter 25-48: The New International Commentary on the Old Testament, Damiel I. Block


Shepherd's Notes: Ezekiel


Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries: Ezekiel, John B. Taylor


The Preacher's Commentary: Ezekiel, Douglas Stuart


"Ezekiel," Calvin's Commentaries, John Calvin


Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown's Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, 1871 Edition, Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset and David Brown


Dr. Constable's Notes on Ezekiel, Dr. Thomas L. Constable, Dallas Theological Seminary (his class notes)


Dr. Kimmitt's Notes on Ezekiel, Dr. Francis X. Kimmitt, New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary (his class notes)


Old Testament Survey: The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, Lasor, Hubbard, and Bush


Intervarsity Press' Old Testament Commentary


Intervarsity Press' New Bible Commentary


Intervarsity Press' Hard Sayings of the Bible



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